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Bisphenol A (BPA) has been evaluated in eight independent immature mouse uterotrophic assays using the subcutaneous route of administration, and in a single study employing oral gavage. The dose range covered was from 0.02 microg to 300 mg/kg BPA and some experiments were supplemented by assessments of uterine hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Pooling of the(More)
Effective risk assessment and management of allergic contact dermatitis require three key factors: adequate hazard identification, measurement of the relative potency of identified hazards and an understanding of the nature, extent and duration of exposure. Suitable methods for hazard identification, such as the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and the(More)
A major challenge in the emerging field of toxicogenomics is to define the relationships between chemically induced changes in gene expression and alterations in conventional toxicologic parameters such as clinical chemistry and histopathology. We have explored these relationships in detail using the rodent uterotrophic assay as a model system. Gene(More)
For more than 15 years, the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) has undergone development, evaluation and validation as an alternative approach to the predictive identification of skin sensitizing chemicals. The criteria by which sensitizing chemicals are distinguished from those without significant skin sensitising hazard were developed empirically and(More)
A survey was performed on the results of 138 carcinogenicity studies conducted in various mouse strains by the agrochemical industry over the period 1983-1993. Data for liver tumor incidence, liver weight, and histopathology were collected along with data on genotoxicity. Studies were judged positive or negative for liver tumor formation on the basis of(More)
2. Estrogenic activity can be assayed by measuring increases in uterine weight (“uterotrophic activity”) in immature or ovariectomised rodents. These models are used as they have low or no production of endogenous estrogens and are therefore, more sensitive to the administration of exogeneous estrogens. Advances in the age at which vaginal opening or first(More)
The use of no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) as a way of interpreting toxicology studies carries a number of problems, and the benchmark dose (BMD), or its lower confidence limit have been proposed as potential replacements. In practice, the theoretical advantages of the BMD approach are often outweighed by the practical disadvantages posed in a(More)
A simple image-analysis method is described, whereby the distribution of hepatocytes that have entered S-phase, as distinguished by the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine, can be related to the position of the central and portal veins of the hepatic lobule. Hepatocyte S-phase was induced in the livers of male and female F344 rats by administration of(More)
The most labour-intensive feature of the in vivo rat liver UDS assay is the scoring of hepatocyte autoradiograms by microscope. Even with image analyser and computer equipment the scoring phase of a full study might require half of the technical effort applied. Practice recommended by guidelines has been to score 50 cells/slide and two slides per animal.(More)
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