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Good clinical trial design requires researchers to specify in advance, in the protocol, those outcomes to be measured. If research has not been conducted to identify the most appropriate clinical trial outcomes in a given condition, three problems may impair the usefulness of the research in informing clinical practice. Firstly, researchers can select(More)
BACKGROUND In clinical trials in childhood asthma, outcomes reflecting short-term disease activity are frequently measured, whilst functional status, quality of life (QoL), and long-term treatment effects are rarely assessed. There is also non-uniformity across studies in the selection and measurement of outcomes within these domains. The development of a(More)
BACKGROUND In clinical trials the selection of appropriate outcomes is crucial to the assessment of whether one intervention is better than another. Selection of inappropriate outcomes can compromise the utility of a trial. However, the process of selecting the most suitable outcomes to include can be complex. Our aim was to systematically review studies(More)
BACKGROUND Little work has been done to determine which outcomes should be measured in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in children with asthma. Drug regulatory authorities require that short term disease activity is measured, but other outcome domains are not mandatory for licensing and marketing purposes. We aimed to identify whether any domains were(More)
BACKGROUND Adequate sedation is crucial to the management of children requiring assisted ventilation on Paediatric Intensive Care Units (PICU). The evidence-base of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in this area is small and a trial was planned to compare midazolam and clonidine, two sedatives widely used within PICUs neither of which being licensed for(More)
OBJECTIVE The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) international consensus initiative has successfully developed core sets of outcome measures for trials of many rheumatologic conditions, but its expanding scope called for clarification and updating of its underlying conceptual framework and working process. To develop a core set of what we propose to(More)
Severe respiratory failure develops in some infants with bronchiolitis because of a complex pathophysiologic process involving increased airways resistance, alveolar atelectasis, muscle fatigue, and hypoxemia due to mismatch between ventilation and perfusion. Nasal CPAP and high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen may improve the work of breathing and(More)
DILEMMA People making choices in health care should use the findings of clinical trials (ideally, incorporated in systematic reviews) to inform their decisions. If these findings are to be useful and reliable, researchers must select appropriate outcomes, measure them in a scientifically robust manner, and report results thoroughly. There are difficulties,(More)
BACKGROUND Intravenous theophyllines are a second line treatment for children suffering an acute exacerbation of asthma. Various guidelines and formularies recommend aiming for serum theophylline levels between 10-20mg/l. This review aims to assess the evidence underpinning this recommendation. METHODS A systematic review comparing outcomes of children(More)
International guidelines provide conflicting recommendations on how to use bronchodilators to manage childhood acute wheezing conditions in the emergency department (ED), and there is variation within and among countries in how these conditions are managed. This may be reflective of uncertainty about the evidence. This overview of systematic reviews (SRs)(More)