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The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) cascade plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis within the cell. AMPK is a heterotrimer composed of a catalytic subunit (alpha) and two regulatory subunits (beta and gamma). We have isolated and characterized two isoforms of the gamma subunit, termed gamma2 and gamma3. Both gamma2 (569 amino(More)
Elevated glucose concentrations stimulate the transcription of the pre-proinsulin (PPI), L-type pyruvate kinase (L-PK), and other genes in islet beta cells. In liver cells, pharmacological activation by 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide riboside (AICAR) of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the mammalian homologue of the yeast SNF1 kinase complex, inhibits(More)
Recent studies have indicated that endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) is regulated by reversible phosphorylation in intact endothelial cells. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has previously been demonstrated to phosphorylate and activate eNOS at Ser-1177 in vitro, yet the function of AMPK in endothelium is poorly characterized. We therefore(More)
Insulin regulates the rate of expression of many hepatic genes, including PEPCK, glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDHase). The expression of these genes is also abnormally regulated in type 2 diabetes. We demonstrate here that treatment of hepatoma cells with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR), an agent(More)
Mammalian AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is the downstream component of a cascade that is activated by cellular stresses associated with ATP depletion. AMPK exists as heterotrimeric alphabetagamma complexes, where the catalytic subunit has two isoforms (alpha1 and alpha2) with different tissue distributions. The budding yeast homologue is the SNF1(More)
INTRODUCTION AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is the downstream component of a serine/threonine protein kinase cascade involved in the regulation of metabolism. Many studies have also revealed that AMPK activation can exert significant anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects in a variety of cell types and models of inflammatory/autoimmune(More)
The AMP-activated protein kinase cascade is activated by elevation of AMP and depression of ATP when cellular energy charge is compromised, leading to inhibition of anabolic pathways and activation of catabolic pathways. Here we show that the system responds in intact cells in an ultrasensitive manner over a critical range of nucleotide concentrations, in(More)
Glucose transport in skeletal muscle is stimulated by two distinct stimuli, insulin and exercise. The mechanism by which exercise stimulates glucose transport is not known, although it is distinct from the insulin-mediated pathway. Recently, it has been shown that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated by exercise in skeletal muscle, whereas(More)
The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimeric complex composed of a catalytic subunit (alpha) and two regulatory subunits (beta and gamma). Two isoforms of the catalytic subunit (alpha1 and alpha2) have been identified. We show here that the alpha1- and alpha2-containing complexes contribute approximately equally to total AMPK activity in rat(More)
Recent studies have indicated that insulin activates endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) by protein kinase B (PKB)-mediated phosphorylation at Ser1177 in endothelial cells. Because hyperglycemia contributes to endothelial dysfunction and decreased NO availability in types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus, we have studied the effects of high glucose (25 mM, 48(More)