Circumstantial evidence suggests that intracellular membrane trafficking pathways diversified independently in the plant kingdom, but documented examples are rare. ARF-GEFs (guanine-nucleotide exchange factors for ADP-ribosylation factor GTPases) are essential for vesicular trafficking in all eukaryotic kingdoms, but of the eight ARF-GEF families, only the… (More)
We have fused the signal anchor sequences of a rat sialyl transferase and a human galactosyl transferase along with the Arabidopsis homologue of the yeast HDEL receptor (AtERD2) to the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) and transiently expressed the chimeric genes in tobacco leaves. All constructs targeted the Golgi apparatus and co-expression with… (More)
The Ypt3/Rab11/Rab25 subfamily of Rab GTPases has expanded greatly in Arabidopsis thaliana, comprising 26 members in six provisional subclasses, Rab-A1 to Rab-A6. We show that the Rab-A2 and Rab-A3 subclasses define a novel post-Golgi membrane domain in Arabidopsis root tips. The Rab-A2/A3 compartment was distinct from but often close to Golgi stacks and… (More)
The function of the Rab-E subclass of plant Rab GTPases in membrane traffic was investigated using a dominant-inhibitory mutant (RAB-E1(d)[NI]) of Arabidopsis thaliana RAB-E1(d) and in vivo imaging approaches that have been used to characterize similar mutants in the plant Rab-D2 and Rab-F2 subclasses. RAB-E1(d)[NI] inhibited the transport of a secreted… (More)
Cytokinesis represents the final stage of eukaryotic cell division during which the cytoplasm becomes partitioned between daughter cells. The process differs to some extent between animal and plant cells, but proteins of the syntaxin family mediate membrane fusion in the plane of cell division in diverse organisms. How syntaxin localization is kept in check… (More)
Plant stems and roots orient themselves with respect to directional illumination and gravity by differential growth on either side of the organ. A model formulated in the 1930s proposed that tropic growth curvature arose from growth hormone redistribution. Studies with Arabidopsis are beginning to reveal the mechanism.
BACKGROUND The number of medical studies performed through online surveys has increased dramatically in recent years. Despite their numerous advantages (eg, sample size, facilitated access to individuals presenting stigmatizing issues), selection bias may exist in online surveys. However, evidence on the representativeness of self-selected samples in online… (More)
Assessment of gene function generally requires knowledge of the sites of action of gene products. Several experimental approaches can provide relevant information, but all have their limitations and the potential for experimental artifact. In this article we focus on the endomembrane organelles and on the methods that can be used to validate the location of… (More)
Special thanks to James Mackay, Denver Bicycle Planner, for introducing and championing the shared lane marking concept.
Influenza A viruses pose a major public health threat by causing seasonal epidemics and sporadic pandemics. Their epidemiological success relies on airborne transmission from person to person; however, the viral properties governing airborne transmission of influenza A viruses are complex. Influenza A virus infection is mediated via binding of the viral… (More)