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Circumstantial evidence suggests that intracellular membrane trafficking pathways diversified independently in the plant kingdom, but documented examples are rare. ARF-GEFs (guanine-nucleotide exchange factors for ADP-ribosylation factor GTPases) are essential for vesicular trafficking in all eukaryotic kingdoms, but of the eight ARF-GEF families, only the(More)
A beta-glucoside encoded by a cloned Zea mays complementary DNA (Zm-p60.1) cleaved the biologically inactive hormone conjugates cytokinin-O-glucosides and kinetin-N3-glucoside, releasing active cytokinin. Tobacco protoplasts that transiently expressed Zm-p60.1 could use the inactive cytokinin glucosides to initiate cell division. The ability of protoplasts(More)
Human influenza viruses predominantly bind α2,6 linked sialic acid (SA) while avian viruses bind α2,3 SA-containing complex glycans. Virulence and tissue tropism of influenza viruses have been ascribed to this binding preference. We generated 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) viruses with either predominant α2,3 or α2,6 SA binding and evaluated these viruses in(More)
Influenza A viruses pose a major public health threat by causing seasonal epidemics and sporadic pandemics. Their epidemiological success relies on airborne transmission from person to person; however, the viral properties governing airborne transmission of influenza A viruses are complex. Influenza A virus infection is mediated via binding of the viral(More)
The organisation of growth and development in vascular plants appears to be highly adapted to meet the specific demands of a sessile, autotrophic habit. Many of the characteristic features of plant development are associated with the activities of five groups of phytohormones. Each of the phytohormones has the ability to influence fundamentally a remarkable(More)
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