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Experiments were performed to determine the cause of "acid crash", a phenomenon which occasionally occurs in pH-uncontrolled batch fermentations resulting in premature cessation of ABE (acetone butanol) production. The results indicate that "acid crash" occurs when the concentration of undissociated acids in the broth exceeds 57 - 60 mmol/l. Prevention can(More)
This article describes the use of biofilm reactors for the production of various chemicals by fermentation and wastewater treatment. Biofilm formation is a natural process where microbial cells attach to the support (adsorbent) or form flocs/aggregates (also called granules) without use of chemicals and form thick layers of cells known as "biofilms." As a(More)
Some lactic acid bacteria (LAB) secrete a polysaccharide polymer. This extracellular polysaccharide, or "exopolysaccharide" (EPS), is economically important because it can impart functional effects to foods and confer beneficial health effects. LAB have a "Generally Recognized As Safe" (GRAS) classification and are likely candidates for the production of(More)
This study investigated the effects of bovine lactoferrin (BLf) on the growth of different groups of bacteria in vitro. BLf showed a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of selected pathogens but not probiotics. BLf, in combination with probiotics, has the potential to influence the composition of the gut microflora via inhibition of intestinal(More)
This article discusses the separation of butanol from aqueous solutions and/or fermentation broth by adsorption. Butanol fermentation is also known as acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) or solvent fermentation. Adsorbents such as silicalite, resins (XAD-2, XAD-4, XAD-7, XAD-8, XAD-16), bone charcoal, activated charcoal, bonopore, and polyvinylpyridine have been(More)
The production of solvents from whey permeate in batch fermentation usingClostridium acetobutylicum P262 was examined. An overall reactor productivity of 0.24 g/l.h was observed, representing a marked improvement over reports using other strains of clostridia. Using a semi-synthetic medium galactose was shown to be as effective a substrate as glucose. When(More)
Under otherwise identical fermentation conditions, the sugar source has been shown to have a marked effect on citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. Sucrose was the most favourable source, followed by glucose and fructose and then lactose. No citric acid was produced from galactose. Strong relationships were observed between citric acid production and(More)
The motility of Clostridium acetobutylicum has been investigated during a typical batch fermentation process for solvent production. The motility is characterized by "runs" during the early phase of sugar utilization and acid production, but this changes to "tumbles" during the onset of solventogenesis. Sugars and undissociated acetic and butyric acids have(More)