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Pain influences many aspects of daily living and effective analgesics should reinstate normal spontaneous daily behaviours. Experiments are described herein which show that the innate, spontaneous behaviour of burrowing by rats, which can be simply and objectively assessed by measuring the amount of gravel left in a hollow tube 1 h after presentation to the(More)
There is growing concern about lack of scientific rigor and transparent reporting across many preclinical fields of biological research. Poor experimental design and lack of transparent reporting can result in conscious or unconscious experimental bias, producing results that are not replicable. The Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial(More)
General rights Copyright for the publications made accessible via the Edinburgh Research Explorer is retained by the author(s) and / or other copyright owners and it is a condition of accessing these publications that users recognise and abide by the legal requirements associated with these rights. Take down policy The University of Edinburgh has made every(More)
Burrowing, an ethologically relevant rodent behaviour, has been proposed as a novel outcome measure to assess the global impact of pain in rats. In a prospective multicentre study using male rats (Wistar, Sprague-Dawley), replication of suppressed burrowing behaviour in the complete Freund adjuvant (CFA)-induced model of inflammatory pain (unilateral, 1(More)
This paper describes and explains some of the principal trends in the wage and skill distribution in recent decades. There have been sharp increases in wage inequality across the OECD, beginning with the US and UK at the end of the 1970s. A good fraction of this inequality growth is due to technology-related increases in the demand for skilled workers(More)
Widely used, the formalin test is a tonic model of continuous pain resulting from formalin-induced tissue injury. It is a useful model, particularly for the screening of novel compounds, since it encompasses inflammatory, neurogenic, and central mechanisms of nociception [5,6]. Reports can vary widely with regard to concentration of formalin (itself a 37%(More)
The exposure of the skin to Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation results in a classical inflammatory reaction characterised by both erythema (flare) and hypersensitivity to noxious and non noxious stimuli (i.e. hyperalgesia and allodynia). No spontaneous pain is associated to this injury [1,2]. Cutaneous UV irradiation causes DNA damage, activates MAP kinase in(More)
3 beta-Amino compounds with 17 beta-(3-furyl) and (4-pyridazinyl) ring systems were prepared from digitoxigenin 1b and found to have similar cardiotonic properties to the analogous 3 beta-hydroxy compounds when tested in the isolated guinea-pig atrial preparation. Derivatives with 3 alpha-acetoxy functions were found to have higher than expected activities.(More)
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