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Pain influences many aspects of daily living and effective analgesics should reinstate normal spontaneous daily behaviours. Experiments are described herein which show that the innate, spontaneous behaviour of burrowing by rats, which can be simply and objectively assessed by measuring the amount of gravel left in a hollow tube 1 h after presentation to the(More)
There is growing concern about lack of scientific rigor and transparent reporting across many preclinical fields of biological research. Poor experimental design and lack of transparent reporting can result in conscious or unconscious experimental bias, producing results that are not replicable. The Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial(More)
Burrowing, an ethologically relevant rodent behaviour, has been proposed as a novel outcome measure to assess the global impact of pain in rats. In a prospective multicentre study using male rats (Wistar, Sprague-Dawley), replication of suppressed burrowing behaviour in the complete Freund adjuvant (CFA)-induced model of inflammatory pain (unilateral, 1(More)
The exposure of the skin to Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation results in a classical inflammatory reaction characterised by both erythema (flare) and hypersensitivity to noxious and non noxious stimuli (i.e. hyperalgesia and allodynia). No spontaneous pain is associated to this injury [1,2]. Cutaneous UV irradiation causes DNA damage, activates MAP kinase in(More)
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