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Resistance to 16 antimicrobial agents was monitored in 109,125 Salmonella cultures isolated from animals, their environment and feedstuffs between 1988 and 1999. The sensitivity of the 6512 isolates of Salmonella enterica enterica serotype Dublin to all the antimicrobial agents tested varied from 98.2 per cent in 1997 to 99.7 per cent in 1990 and 1996. In(More)
Two experimental models of Salmonella contamination were used in an attempt to mimic the conditions of disinfectant use on farms. A wet model, for conditions such as boot dips, used disinfectant application to a slurry of poultry faeces inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Typhimurium. A dry model, for disinfectant application to surfaces(More)
Eight pig breeding units previously associated with Salmonella Typhimurium were visited during a period of up to seven years. Samples from voided faeces, surfaces, fomites and wildlife were cultured. Certain serovars (Derby, Stanley, Give, Bredeney, Mbandaka and Manhattan) were isolated repeatedly on certain units, while others (Agona, Ajiobo, Heidelberg,(More)
We performed pulsed-field gel electrophoresis on Escherichia coli O157 isolates (n = 318) from 199 healthy animals in a longitudinal study carried out on nine farms. Investigation of the restriction types proved that at the farm level, the same clones can be detected on sampling occasions separated by as much as 17 months. The cohort animals were repeatedly(More)
During the decade to 1999, the incidence of human infections with the zoonotic pathogen verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 (VTEC O157) increased in England and Wales. This paper describes the results of a survey of 75 farms to determine the prevalence of faecal excretion of VTEC O157 by cattle, its primary reservoir host, in England and Wales.(More)
A sandwich ELISA using monoclonal antibodies to Escherichia coli verocytotoxins 1 and 2 for capture and detection was developed for detection of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) in animal faeces. For optimal toxin detection, the faeces were cultured in MacConkey broth before subculture on to trypticase soy agar containing mitomycin C. It was(More)
The objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity of culturing pooled samples containing varying numbers of individual droppings for detection of Salmonella in commercial egg-laying flocks relative to the within-flock prevalence. A laboratory experiment was performed to directly measure the effect of diluting positive with negative faeces on the(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of opioid and non-opioid sedation on gastric emptying. DESIGN Prospective, randomized trial. SETTING University teaching hospital ICU. PATIENTS 21 brain injured patients requiring sedation, mechanical ventilation and intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring for > 24 h. INTERVENTIONS Patients were randomized to receive(More)
Bacteriological monitoring of broiler breeder farms, the hatchery, rendering plant and animal feed mill during 1991 identified a number of potential cross-contamination hazards, such as the use of processed poultry proteins in the company feed mill and contamination of egg trolleys and trays, which may have led to widespread dissemination of Salmonella(More)
We investigated factors associated with persistence of different Salmonella serovars in buildings housing laying hens in Great Britain using survival analysis. A total of 264 incidents of Salmonella detection occurring between July 1998 and August 2007 in 152 houses were recorded. For incidents involving Salmonella Enteritidis (SE), both the rodent score of(More)