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A pilot field study was conducted to assess the impact of bioaugmentation with two plasmid pJP4-bearing microorganisms: the natural host, Ralstonia eutropha JMP134, and a laboratory-generated strain amenable to donor counterselection, Escherichia coli D11. The R. eutropha strain contained chromosomal genes necessary for mineralization of(More)
Sewage sludge is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds of biological and mineral origin that are precipitated from wastewater and sewage during primary, secondary, and tertiary sewage treatment. Present in these sludges are significant numbers of microorganisms that include viral, bacterial, protozoan, fungal, and helminth pathogens. The(More)
Waterborne pathogenic viruses discharged from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) pose potential public health risks. In the present study, we investigated the relative abundance, occurrence, and reduction of eleven different viruses at two WWTPs in southern Arizona over a 12-month period, from August 2011 to July 2012. Influent and effluent samples from(More)
Microsporidia, as a group, cause a wide range of infections, though two species of microsporidia in particular, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis, are associated with gastrointestinal disease in humans. To date, the mode of transmission and environmental occurrence of microsporidia have not been elucidated due to lack of sensitive and(More)
Standard methods for the detection of enteroviruses in environmental samples involve the use of cell culture, which is expensive and time-consuming. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an attractive method for the detection of enteroviruses in water because primary cell culture is not needed and the increased sensitivity of PCR allows detection of the(More)
This two year study evaluated the prevalence of indicator bacteria and specific pathogens in 10 'normal' kitchens in the United States. In Phase I, none of the kitchens was cleaned with an antimicrobial cleaner or disinfectant. Eight locations within the kitchens were monitored for: total heterotrophs, staphylococci, Pseudomonas, total coliforms and faecal(More)
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodologies for detection of pathogens in environmental samples are currently available. However, positive amplification products for any set of primers only signal that the appropriate target nucleic acid sequences were present in the sample. The presence of the amplification products does not imply that the target(More)
Three sets of oligonucleotide primers were used in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to detect Salmonella species. phoP primers specific to the phoP/phoQ loci of coliform pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli, and Citrobacter species served as presumptive indicators of enteric bacteria. In addition to the phoP primers,(More)
Although metals are thought to inhibit the ability of microorganisms to degrade organic pollutants, several microbial mechanisms of resistance to metal are known to exist. This study examined the potential of cadmium-resistant microorganisms to reduce soluble cadmium levels to enhance degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) under conditions of(More)
Inactivation of poliovirus type 1 by 1 N HCl, 1 N NaOH, 0.5 and 1.0 mg of free chlorine per liter, and UV light was compared by using cell culture and seminested PCR (30 cycles of reverse transcriptase-PCR plus 30 cycles of seminested PCR). A minimum contact time of 45 min with HCl, 3 min with NaOH, 3 and 6 min with 1.0 and 0.5 mg of free chlorine per(More)