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Standard methods for the detection of enteroviruses in environmental samples involve the use of cell culture, which is expensive and time-consuming. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an attractive method for the detection of enteroviruses in water because primary cell culture is not needed and the increased sensitivity of PCR allows detection of the(More)
This two year study evaluated the prevalence of indicator bacteria and specific pathogens in 10 'normal' kitchens in the United States. In Phase I, none of the kitchens was cleaned with an antimicrobial cleaner or disinfectant. Eight locations within the kitchens were monitored for: total heterotrophs, staphylococci, Pseudomonas, total coliforms and faecal(More)
A pilot field study was conducted to assess the impact of bioaugmentation with two plasmid pJP4-bearing microorganisms: the natural host, Ralstonia eutropha JMP134, and a laboratory-generated strain amenable to donor counterselection, Escherichia coli D11. The R. eutropha strain contained chromosomal genes necessary for mineralization of(More)
Waterborne pathogenic viruses discharged from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) pose potential public health risks. In the present study, we investigated the relative abundance, occurrence, and reduction of eleven different viruses at two WWTPs in southern Arizona over a 12-month period, from August 2011 to July 2012. Influent and effluent samples from(More)
Sewage sludge is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds of biological and mineral origin that are precipitated from wastewater and sewage during primary, secondary, and tertiary sewage treatment. Present in these sludges are significant numbers of microorganisms that include viral, bacterial, protozoan, fungal, and helminth pathogens. The(More)
Prior to gene transfer experiments performed with nonsterile soil, plasmid pJP4 was introduced into a donor microorganism, Escherichia coli ATCC 15224, by plate mating with Ralstonia eutropha JMP134. Genes on this plasmid encode mercury resistance and partial 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) degradation. The E. coli donor lacks the chromosomal genes(More)
Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen both within the hospital setting and as a community-acquired infection. Recently there has been concern that land applied biosolids may transmit S. aureus. However, no scientific data are available to document whether biosolids are a source of S. aureus. To determine if S. aureus is present in biosolids,(More)
Three sets of oligonucleotide primers were used in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to detect Salmonella species. phoP primers specific to the phoP/phoQ loci of coliform pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli, and Citrobacter species served as presumptive indicators of enteric bacteria. In addition to the phoP primers,(More)
Current standards, based on cell culture assay, indicate that poliovirus is inactivated by 0.5 mg of free chlorine per liter after 2 min; however, integrated cell culture-PCR detected viruses for up to 8 min of exposure to the same chlorine concentration, requiring 10 min for complete inactivation. Thus, the contact time for chlorine disinfection of(More)
Six waters from different U.S. cities with known diverse taste and odor (TO) evaluations were selected for additional microbial characterization. All waters were subjected to microbial and cultural analyses, and four of the waters were further analyzed by cloning and sequencing of community 16S rRNA. The purpose of the study was to evaluate water(More)