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  • Van Och, De Jong, Van Loveren, R J Dearman, Hilton, Kimber +14 others
  • 2009
INTRODUCTION 4 1. OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals are periodically reviewed in light of 5 scientific progress, changing regulatory needs, and animal welfare considerations. The first 6 Test Guideline (TG) for the determination of skin sensitisation in the mouse, the Local 7 Lymph Node Assay (LLNA; TG 429) was adopted in 2002 (1). The details of(More)
Toxicogenomics has the potential to reveal the molecular pathways and cellular processes that mediate the adverse responses to a toxicant. However, the initial output of a toxicogenomic experiment often consists of large lists of genes whose expression is altered after toxicant exposure. To interpret gene expression changes in the context of underlying(More)
We studied nine presumed nongenotoxic rodent carcinogens, as defined by the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP), to determine their ability to induce acute or subacute biochemical and tissue changes that may act as useful predictors of nongenotoxic rodent carcinogenesis. The chemicals selected included six liver carcinogens (two of which are peroxisome(More)
The advent of the local lymph node assay (LLNA), and efforts to develop in vitro alternatives for the identification of skin sensitizing chemicals has focused attention on the issue of false positive and false negative results. In essence, the question becomes 'what is the gold standard?' In this context, attention has focused primarily on the LLNA as this(More)
Langerhans cell (LC) migration from epidermis to draining lymph node is a critical first step in cutaneous immune responses. Both TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta are important signals governing this process, but the potential regulatory role of IL-1 alpha processing by caspase-1 is unknown. In wild-type (WT) mice, application of the contact allergens(More)
Several studies have demonstrated that antagonists of the corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) receptor markedly inhibit experimentally induced excitotoxic, ischaemic and traumatic brain injury in the rat, and that CRF expression is elevated in response to experimentally induced stroke or traumatic brain injury. CRF is also induced by the pro-inflammatory(More)
No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright owner. The appearance of the code at the bottom of the first page of an article in this journal indicates the(More)
Since March 2013, animal use for cosmetics testing for the European market has been banned. This requires a renewed view on risk assessment in this field. However, in other fields as well, traditional animal experimentation does not always satisfy requirements in safety testing, as the need for human-relevant information is ever increasing. A general(More)
Contact allergies are complex diseases, and one of the important challenges for public health and immunology. The German ‘Federal Institute for Risk Assessment’ hosted an ‘International Workshop on Contact Dermatitis’. The scope of the workshop was to discuss new discoveries and developments in the field of contact dermatitis. This included the epidemiology(More)