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OBJECTIVE To evaluate the yield, economic, and radiation costs of 5 diagnostic algorithms compared with a protocol where all tests are performed (ultrasonography scan, cystography, and late technetium(99)dimercaptosuccinic acid scan) in children after the first febrile urinary tract infections. METHODS A total of 304 children, 2 to 36 months of age, who(More)
OBJECTIVES The American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation for febrile infants and young children suspected of having a urinary tract infection is early antibiotic treatment, given parenterally if necessary. In support of this recommendation, data suggesting that delay in treatment of acute pyelonephritis increases the risk of kidney damage are cited.(More)
BACKGROUND Children with febrile urinary tract infection commonly have vesicoureteral reflux. Because trial results have been limited and inconsistent, the use of antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent recurrences in children with reflux remains controversial. METHODS In this 2-year, multisite, randomized, placebo-controlled trial involving 607 children(More)
OBJECTIVES Febrile urinary tract infections are common in children and associated with the risk for renal scarring and long-term complications. Antimicrobial prophylaxis has been used to reduce the risk for recurrence. We performed a study to determine whether no prophylaxis is similar to antimicrobial prophylaxis for 12 months in reducing the recurrence of(More)
OBJECTIVE We examined the diagnostic accuracy of routine imaging studies (ultrasonography and micturating cystography) for predicting long-term parenchymal renal damage after a first febrile urinary tract infection. METHODS This study addressed the secondary objective of a prospective trial evaluating different antibiotic regimens for the treatment of(More)
Subclinical rhythmic electroencephalogram (EEG) discharge is an uncommon rhythmic EEG pattern that has been reported to occur in adults. It is thought to be a nonspecific finding with little clinical significance. This article reports this EEG pattern in two children and suggests it be called subclinical rhythmic EEG discharge of adults and children.
AIMS To determine and compare two urinary indices of renal tubular function, N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG) and beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2 M), in healthy term neonates and babies with perinatal asphyxia. METHODS In a prospective case-control study using asphyxiated (n = 35) and normal control (n = 55) infants, urinary NAG and beta 2 M were assayed at(More)
The protracted and costly investigations into Camden and Campbelltown hospitals (New South Wales), The Canberra Hospital (Australian Capital Territory), and King Edward Memorial Hospital (Western Australia) recently uncovered significant problems with quality and safety at these institutions. Each investigation arose after whistleblowers alerted politicians(More)
Urinary tract infections, with or without reflux, are the most frequent reason for long-term antibacterial prophylaxis in infants and children. When one is considering the use of prophylaxis in these children, what is clear from existing published data? Up to 2006 there were a small number of poor quality studies, with no reliable evidence of the(More)