Ian J. Tickle

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Cytochromes P450 (P450s) metabolize a wide range of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics, such as pollutants, environmental compounds, and drug molecules. The microsomal, membrane-associated, P450 isoforms CYP3A4, CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2E1, and CYP1A2 are responsible for the oxidative metabolism of more than 90% of marketed drugs. Cytochrome P450 3A4(More)
The cyclin D1-cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) complex is a key regulator of the transition through the G(1) phase of the cell cycle. Among the cyclin/CDKs, CDK4 and cyclin D1 are the most frequently activated by somatic genetic alterations in multiple tumor types. Thus, aberrant regulation of the CDK4/cyclin D1 pathway plays an essential role in(More)
The human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae produces soluble pneumolysin monomers that bind host cell membranes to form ring-shaped, oligomeric pores. We have determined three-dimensional structures of a helical oligomer of pneumolysin and of a membrane-bound ring form by cryo-electron microscopy. Fitting the four domains from the crystal structure of the(More)
The three-dimensional structure of pentameric human serum amyloid P component at high resolution, the first reported for a pentraxin, reveals that the tertiary fold is remarkably similar to that of the legume lectins. Carboxylate and phosphate compounds bind directly to two calcium ions; interactions with a carboxyethylidene ring are mediated by Asn 59 and(More)
The crystal structure of avian pancreatic polypeptide (aPP), a 36-residue polypeptide with some hormonal properties, has been determined by using single isomorphous replacement and anomalous scattering to 2.1-A resolution. The phases were extended to 1.4-A resolution by using a modified tangent formula. The molecule contains two regions of secondary(More)
Fragment screening offers an alternative to traditional screening for discovering new leads in drug discovery programs. This paper describes a fragment screening methodology based on high throughput X-ray crystallography. The method is illustrated against five proteins (p38 MAP kinase, CDK2, thrombin, ribonuclease A, and PTP1B). The fragments identified(More)
The protein Keap1 is central to the regulation of the Nrf2-mediated cytoprotective response, and is increasingly recognized as an important target for therapeutic intervention in a range of diseases involving excessive oxidative stress and inflammation. The BTB domain of Keap1 plays key roles in sensing environmental electrophiles and in mediating(More)
The molecular structure of the hexagonal crystal form of porcine pepsin (EC 3.4.23.1), an aspartic proteinase from the gastric mucosa, has been determined by molecular replacement using the fungal enzyme, penicillopepsin (EC 3.4.23.6), as the search model. This defined the space group as P6522 and refinement led to an R-factor of 0.190 at 2.3 A resolution.(More)
The fragment-based approach is now well established as an important component of modern drug discovery. A key part in establishing its position as a viable technique has been the development of a range of biophysical methodologies with sufficient sensitivity to detect the binding of very weakly binding molecules. X-ray crystallography was one of the first(More)
The three-dimensional structure of the eye lens protein, bovine gamma-crystallin II, has been determined at 2.6 A resolution. The protein has a tow domain beta-structure, folded into four remarkably similar 'Greed key' motifs, and shows the highest internal symmetry of any protein studied by X-ray analysis. Although the symmetrical structure seems very(More)