Ian J. C. Wallace

Learn More
To gain insight into past human physical activity, anthropologists often infer functional loading history from the morphology of limb bone remains. It is assumed that, during life, loading had a positive, dose-dependent effect on bone structure that can be identified despite other effects. Here, we investigate the effects of genetic background and(More)
Anthropologists accept that mobility is a critical dimension of human culture, one that links economy, technology, and social relations. Less often acknowledged is that mobility depends on complex and dynamic interactions between multiple levels of our biological organization, including anatomy, physiology, neurobiology, and genetics. Here, we describe a(More)
OBJECTIVE An experiment was conducted to determine if modifying habitual activities to involve mechanical loading from more diverse directions can enhance the growing skeleton. METHODS Growing female C57BL/6J mice were housed individually for 3 months in enclosures designed to accentuate either non-linear locomotion (diverse-orientation loading) or linear(More)
Force magnitudes have been suggested to drive the structural response of bone to exercise. As importantly, the degree to which any given bone can adapt to functional challenges may be enabled, or constrained, by regional variation in the capacity of marrow progenitors to differentiate into bone-forming cells. Here, we investigate the relationship between(More)
Limb bone diaphyseal structure is frequently used to infer hominin activity levels from skeletal remains, an approach based on the well-documented ability of bone to adjust to its loading environment during life. However, diaphyseal structure is also determined in part by genetic factors. This study investigates the possibility that genetic variation(More)
Quadrupedal locomotion of primates is distinguished from the quadrupedalism of many other mammals by several features, including a diagonal sequence (DS) footfall used in symmetrical gaits. This presumably unique feature of primate locomotion has been attributed to an ancestral adaptation for cautious arboreal quadrupedalism on thin, flexible branches.(More)
Among the structural properties of trabecular bone, the degree of anisotropy is most often found to separate taxa with different habitual locomotor modes. This study examined the degree of anisotropy, the elongation, and primary orientation of trabecular bone in the KNM-ER 1464 Early Pleistocene hominin talus as compared with extant hominoid taxa. Modern(More)
Functional interpretations of limb bone structure frequently assume that diaphyses adjust their shape by adding bone primarily across the plane in which they are habitually loaded in order to minimize loading-induced strains. Here, to test this hypothesis, we characterize the in vivo strain environment of the sheep tibial midshaft during treadmill exercise(More)
UNLABELLED Age-related deterioration of limb bone diaphyseal structure is documented among precontact Inuit foragers from northern Alaska. These findings challenge the concept that bone loss and fracture susceptibility among modern Inuit stem from their transition away from a physically demanding traditional lifestyle toward a more sedentary Western(More)
OBJECTIVES Analyses of hominine forelimb diaphyseal structure typically employ sections located at midshaft. This study addresses three questions. First, how accurately must midshaft be defined to yield comparable data? Second, does variation in midshaft location due to alternative definitions fall within error ranges such that data gathered using different(More)