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BACKGROUND The potential use of plasma and serum for molecular diagnosis has generated interest. Tumour DNA has been found in 'the plasma and serum of cancer patients, and molecular analysis has been done on this material. We investigated the equivalent condition in pregnancy-that is, whether fetal DNA is present in maternal plasma and serum. METHODS We(More)
UNLABELLED Cellular microvesicles and nanovesicles (exosomes) are involved in many disease processes and have major potential as biomarkers. However, developments in this area are constrained by limitations in the technology available for their measurement. Here we report on the use of fluorescence nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) to rapidly size and(More)
BACKGROUND There is much recent interest in the biologic and diagnostic implication of cell-free non-host DNA in the plasma and serum of human subjects. To determine if quantitative abnormalities of circulating non-host DNA may be associated with certain pathologic processes, we used circulating fetal DNA in preeclampsia as a model system. METHODS We(More)
Alpha-synuclein aggregation plays a central role in Parkinson's disease pathology. Direct transmission of alpha-synuclein from pathologically affected to healthy unaffected neurons may be important in the anatomical spread of the disease through the nervous system. We have demonstrated that exosomes released from alpha-synuclein over-expressing SH-SY5Y(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) on human embryo development in vitro from days 2 to 14 post-insemination. Embryos were cultured in a complex serum-free medium (CSFM3) in the absence and presence of 1 nM and 100 nM HB-EGF. Development to the blastocyst stage of A-C-grade embryos (A(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Preeclampsia is an independent cardiovascular risk factor for the mother, and recent studies reveal that offspring of affected pregnancies also may have an increased cardiovascular risk. Our objective was to examine evidence for increased cardiovascular risk factors in children exposed to preeclampsia in utero. METHODS We(More)
Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) is a light-scattering technique that is useful for the rapid sizing and enumeration of extracellular vesicles (EVs). As a relatively new method, NTA has been criticised for a lack of standardisation. We propose the use of silica microspheres for the calibration of NTA measurements and describe in detail a protocol for(More)
Extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) are promising biomarkers of the inherited muscle wasting condition Duchenne muscular dystrophy, as they allow non-invasive monitoring of either disease progression or response to therapy. In this study, serum miRNA profiling reveals a distinct extracellular miRNA signature in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice, which shows(More)
Notch signaling is an evolutionary conserved pathway that is mediated by cell-cell contact. It is involved in a variety of developmental processes and has an essential role in vascular development and angiogenesis. Delta-like 4 (Dll4) is a Notch ligand that is up-regulated during angiogenesis. It is expressed in endothelial cells and regulates the(More)