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BACKGROUND The potential use of plasma and serum for molecular diagnosis has generated interest. Tumour DNA has been found in 'the plasma and serum of cancer patients, and molecular analysis has been done on this material. We investigated the equivalent condition in pregnancy-that is, whether fetal DNA is present in maternal plasma and serum. METHODS We(More)
BACKGROUND The ability to determine fetal RhD Status noninvasively is useful in the treatment of RhD-sensitized pregnant women whose partners are heterozygous for the RhD gene. The recent demonstration of fetal DNA in maternal plasma raises the possibility that fetal RhD genotyping may be possible with the use of maternal plasma. METHODS We studied 57(More)
RATIONALE Syncytiotrophoblast microparticles (STBM) are shed into the maternal circulation in higher amounts in pre-eclampsia compared to normal pregnancy and are believed to be the stimulus for the systemic inflammatory response and endothelial cell damage which characterises the maternal syndrome. The excess shedding of STBM may be caused by hypoxia as a(More)
Alpha-synuclein aggregation plays a central role in Parkinson's disease pathology. Direct transmission of alpha-synuclein from pathologically affected to healthy unaffected neurons may be important in the anatomical spread of the disease through the nervous system. We have demonstrated that exosomes released from alpha-synuclein over-expressing SH-SY5Y(More)
BACKGROUND There is much recent interest in the biologic and diagnostic implication of cell-free non-host DNA in the plasma and serum of human subjects. To determine if quantitative abnormalities of circulating non-host DNA may be associated with certain pathologic processes, we used circulating fetal DNA in preeclampsia as a model system. METHODS We(More)
UNLABELLED Cellular microvesicles and nanovesicles (exosomes) are involved in many disease processes and have major potential as biomarkers. However, developments in this area are constrained by limitations in the technology available for their measurement. Here we report on the use of fluorescence nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) to rapidly size and(More)
Systemic inflammatory responsiveness was studied in normal human pregnancy and its specific inflammatory disorder, pre-eclampsia. Compared with nonpregnancy, monocytes were primed to produce more TNF-alpha throughout normal pregnancy, more IL-12p70 in the first and second trimesters, and more IL-18 in the first trimester only. Intracellular cytokine(More)
BACKGROUND Enumeration of extracellular vesicles has clinical potential as a biomarker for disease. In biological samples, the smallest and largest vesicles typically differ 25-fold in size, 300,000-fold in concentration, 20,000-fold in volume, and 10,000,000-fold in scattered light. Because of this heterogeneity, the currently employed techniques detect(More)
Pre-eclampsia is a common and potentially dangerous disorder of human pregnancy. The maternal syndrome of hypertension, proteinuria and oedema is part of a severe systemic inflammatory response that includes leukocyte and endothelial cell activation. Although the origins of pre-eclampsia remain unclear, a major cause is the failure to develop an adequate(More)