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avelength-division multiplexing (WDM) is currently being deployed in telecommunications networks in order to satisfy the increased demand for capacity brought about by both narrowband services and new broadband services such as high-speed Internet. While it is thought that WDM will ultimately evolve to interconnected rings or perhaps a mesh network, the(More)
One of the major concerns of IPTV network deployment is channel change delay (also known as zapping delay). This delay can add up to 2 s or more, and its main culprits are synchronisation and buffering of the media streams. Proving the importance of the problem is the already significant amount of literature addressing it. We start this paper with a survey(More)
One of the major concerns of IPTV network deployment is channel switching (or zapping) delay. This delay can add up to two seconds or more, and its main culprits are synchronisa-tion and buffering. By analysing an extensive dataset-comprising 255 thousand users, 150 TV channels, and covering a 6-month period-we have observed that most channel switching(More)
Ultrashort-pulse lasers with spectral tuning capability have widespread applications in fields such as spectroscopy, biomedical research and telecommunications. Mode-locked fibre lasers are convenient and powerful sources of ultrashort pulses, and the inclusion of a broadband saturable absorber as a passive optical switch inside the laser cavity may offer(More)
An analysis of the sending rate of TCP control over Terabit per second rate links illustrates how future optical network characteristics, such as higher bitrates, network congestion, and larger data loads, would affect performance. We have implemented a model to allow increased sending rate for TCP. It is shown that even if the network bitrate is higher and(More)
IPTV services are the fastest growing television services in the world today. This is a bandwidth intensive service, requiring low latency and tight control of jitter. To guarantee the quality of service required, service providers opt to multicast all TV channels at all times to everywhere. However, a significant number of channels are rarely watched, so(More)
We present a local area sub-network design avoiding optical buffering, bit level synchronization and regeneration. Using currently available components we calculate acceptable utilisation when scalability is limited to local, system, storage and desk area networks. The architecture draws upon well-understood computer networking concepts, and uses wavelength(More)
Layered asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ACO-OFDM) with high spectral efficiency is proposed in this paper for optical wireless transmission employing intensity modulation with direct detection. In contrast to the conventional ACO-OFDM, which only utilizes odd subcarriers for modulation, leading to an obvious(More)