Ian G. Jennings

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Phenylalanine hydroxylase converts phenylalanine to tyrosine, a rate-limiting step in phenylalanine catabolism and protein and neurotransmitter biosynthesis. It is tightly regulated by the substrates phenylalanine and tetrahydrobiopterin and by phosphorylation. We present the crystal structures of dephosphorylated and phosphorylated forms of a dimeric(More)
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a multisubstrate enzyme activated by increases in AMP during metabolic stress caused by exercise, hypoxia, lack of cell nutrients, as well as hormones, including adiponectin and leptin. Furthermore, metformin and rosiglitazone, frontline drugs used for the treatment of type II diabetes, activate AMPK. Mammalian AMPK is(More)
Proteins containing the classical nuclear localization sequences (NLSs) are imported into the nucleus by the importin-alpha/beta heterodimer. Importin-alpha contains the NLS binding site, whereas importin-beta mediates the translocation through the nuclear pore. We characterized the interactions involving importin-alpha during nuclear import using a(More)
The renal-specific NKCC2 (Na+-K+-2Cl- co-transporter 2) is regulated by changes in phosphorylation state, however, the phosphorylation sites and kinases responsible have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrate that the metabolic sensing kinase AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) phosphorylates NKCC2 on Ser126 in vitro.(More)
PH8 monoclonal antibody has previously been shown to react with all three aromatic amino acid hydroxylases, being particularly useful for immunohistochemical staining of brain tissue [Haan, Jennings, Cuello, Nakata, Chow, Kushinsky, Brittingham & Cotton (1987) Brain Res. 426, 19-27]. Western-blot analysis of liver extracts showed that PH8 reacted with(More)
A series of aminoacyl-triazine derivatives based upon the pan-PI3K inhibitor ZSTK474 were identified as potent and isoform selective inhibitors of PI3Kβ. The compounds showed selectivity based upon stereochemistry with L-amino acyl derivatives preferring PI3Kβ while their D-congeners favoured PI3Kδ. The mechanistic basis of this inhibition was studied using(More)
A monoclonal antibody, PH8, has been isolated and shown by immunocytochemistry to bind to serotonergic and catecholaminergic neurons in sections of the rat and human brain. In human brain, obtained at autopsy, particular fixation and embedding conditions eliminate the labelling of catecholaminergic neurons while leaving intact the labelling of serotonergic(More)
Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is the enzyme that converts phenylalanine to tyrosine as a rate-limiting step in phenylalanine catabolism and protein and neurotransmitter biosynthesis. Over 300 mutations have been identified in the gene encoding PAH that result in a deficient enzyme activity and lead to the disorders hyperphenylalaninaemia and(More)