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OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between hospital and emergency department (ED) occupancy, as indicators of hospital overcrowding, and mortality after emergency admission. DESIGN Retrospective analysis of 62 495 probabilistically linked emergency hospital admissions and death records. SETTING Three tertiary metropolitan hospitals between July 2000(More)
BACKGROUND Current 2005 guidelines for advanced cardiac life support strongly recommend immediate defibrillation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. However, findings from experimental and clinical studies have indicated a potential advantage of pretreatment with chest compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) prior to defibrillation in improving(More)
Its mission is to identify and review international science and knowledge relevant to cardiopulmo-nary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care (ECC) and when there is consensus to offer treatment recommendations. Emergency cardiovascular care includes all responses necessary to treat sudden life-threatening events affecting the cardiovascular(More)
BACKGROUND There is little evidence from clinical trials that the use of adrenaline (epinephrine) in treating cardiac arrest improves survival, despite adrenaline being considered standard of care for many decades. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of adrenaline on patient survival to hospital discharge in out of hospital cardiac arrest. (More)
Note From the Writing Group: Throughout this article, the reader will notice combinations of superscripted letters and numbers (eg, " Precourse Preparation EIT-018A "). These call-outs are hyperlinked to evidence-based worksheets, which were used in the development of this article. An appendix of worksheets, applicable to this article, is located at the end(More)
Note From the Writing Group: Throughout this article, the reader will notice combinations of superscripted letters and numbers (eg, " Initial Recognition BLS-003A, BLS-003B "). These callouts are hyperlinked to evidence-based worksheets, which were used in the development of this article. An appendix of worksheets, applicable to this article, is located at(More)
OBJECTIVE To quantify the change in door to needle time when delivery of thrombolytic treatment of acute myocardial infarction was changed from the coronary care unit to the emergency department. DESIGN A comparative observational study using prospectively collected data. SETTING Coronary care unit and emergency department of an Australian teaching(More)
" There are known knowns. These are things we know that we know. There are known unknowns. That is to say, there are things that we now know we don't know. But there are also unknown unknowns. These are things we do not know we don't know. " —United States Secretary of Defense Donald Rums-feld (February 2002) " Thought is the wind, knowledge the sail, and(More)
Many injury severity scoring tools have been developed over the past few decades. These tools include the Injury Severity Score (ISS), New ISS (NISS), Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) and International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-based Injury Severity Score (ICISS). Although many studies have endeavored to determine the ability of these tools(More)
Note From the Writing Group: Throughout this article, the reader will notice combinations of superscripted letters and numbers (eg, " CPR Before Defibrillation BLS-024A, BLS-024B "). These callouts are hyperlinked to evidence-based worksheets, which were used in the development of this article. An appendix of worksheets, applicable to this article, is(More)