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Antigenic and genetic analysis of the hemagglutinin of approximately 13,000 human influenza A (H3N2) viruses from six continents during 2002-2007 revealed that there was continuous circulation in east and Southeast Asia (E-SE Asia) via a region-wide network of temporally overlapping epidemics and that epidemics in the temperate regions were seeded from this(More)
BACKGROUND The rapid diagnosis of influenza can alter the management of a patient's illness, resulting in reduced antibiotic usage, correct use of influenza antivirals and reduced length of stay in hospital emergency departments. The rapid tests have also been used to detect outbreaks in institutions and may play a role in pandemic influenza control. (More)
The molecular basis of antigenic drift was determined for the hemagglutinin (HA) of human influenza A/H3N2 virus. From 1968 to 2003, antigenic change was caused mainly by single amino acid substitutions, which occurred at only seven positions in HA immediately adjacent to the receptor binding site. Most of these substitutions were involved in antigenic(More)
Along with influenza vaccines, the world is currently almost completely dependent on two licensed drugs for the treatment or prevention of seasonal (influenza A and B viruses) and pandemic influenza (influenza A viruses). These drugs - oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza) - are classified as neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) because they act by(More)
In March 2010, an outbreak of low pathogenicity avian influenza A (H10N7) occurred on a chicken farm in Australia. After processing clinically normal birds from the farm, 7 abattoir workers reported conjunctivitis and minor upper respiratory tract symptoms. Influenza virus A subtype H10 infection was detected in 2 workers.
Human influenza viruses isolated from Australasia (Australia and New Zealand) and South East Asia were analysed to determine their sensitivity to the NA inhibitor drugs, zanamivir and oseltamivir. A total of 532 strains isolated between 1998 and 2002 were tested using a fluorescence-based assay to measure the relative inhibition of NA activity over a range(More)
BACKGROUND Oseltamivir resistance in A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza is rare, particularly in untreated community cases. Sustained community transmission has not previously been reported. METHODS Influenza specimens from the Asia-Pacific region were collected through sentinel surveillance, hospital, and general practitioner networks. Clinical and epidemiological(More)
A novel influenza A(H1N1)2009 variant with mildly reduced oseltamivir and zanamivir sensitivity has been detected in more than 10% of community specimens in Singapore and more than 30% of samples from northern Australia during the early months of 2011. The variant, which has also been detected in other regions of the Asia-Pacific, contains a S247N(More)
Understanding the spatiotemporal patterns of emergence and circulation of new human seasonal influenza virus variants is a key scientific and public health challenge. The global circulation patterns of influenza A/H3N2 viruses are well characterized, but the patterns of A/H1N1 and B viruses have remained largely unexplored. Here we show that the global(More)
Development of effective drugs for the treatment or prevention of epidemic and pandemic influenza is important in order to reduce its impact. Adamantanes and neuraminidase inhibitors are two classes of anti-influenza drugs available for influenza therapy currently. However, emergence of resistance to these drugs has been detected, which raises concerns(More)