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The proto-oncogene KRAS is mutated in a wide array of human cancers, most of which are aggressive and respond poorly to standard therapies. Although the identification of specific oncogenes has led to the development of clinically effective, molecularly targeted therapies in some cases, KRAS has remained refractory to this approach. A complementary strategy(More)
The karyotypic chaos exhibited by human epithelial cancers complicates efforts to identify mutations critical for malignant transformation. Here we integrate complementary genomic approaches to identify human oncogenes. We show that activation of the ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathways cooperate to transform human cells. Using a(More)
Dysregulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway occurs frequently in human cancer. PTEN tumor suppressor or PIK3CA oncogene mutations both direct PI3K-dependent tumorigenesis largely through activation of the AKT/PKB kinase. However, here we show through phosphoprotein profiling and functional genomic studies that many PIK3CA(More)
Glioblastoma is both the most common and lethal primary malignant brain tumor. Extensive multiplatform genomic characterization has provided a higher-resolution picture of the molecular alterations underlying this disease. These studies provide the emerging view that "glioblastoma" represents several histologically similar yet molecularly heterogeneous(More)
An alternative to therapeutic targeting of oncogenes is to perform "synthetic lethality" screens for genes that are essential only in the context of specific cancer-causing mutations. We used high-throughput RNA interference (RNAi) to identify synthetic lethal interactions in cancer cells harboring mutant KRAS, the most commonly mutated human oncogene. We(More)
Aberrant activation of the canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway occurs in almost all colorectal cancers and contributes to their growth, invasion and survival. Although dysregulated beta-catenin activity drives colon tumorigenesis, further genetic perturbations are required to elaborate full malignant transformation. To identify genes that both modulate(More)
The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene is rapidly activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here, we show that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase activity but not calcineurin phosphatase activity is required for LPS-stimulated TNF-alpha gene expression. In LPS-stimulated macrophages, the ERK substrates Ets and Elk-1 bind to the(More)
Craniopharyngiomas are epithelial tumors that typically arise in the suprasellar region of the brain. Patients experience substantial clinical sequelae from both extension of the tumors and therapeutic interventions that damage the optic chiasm, the pituitary stalk and the hypothalamic area. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified mutations in CTNNB1(More)
It has become well accepted that solid tumors must create a vascular system for nutrient delivery and waste removal in order to grow appreciably. This process, angiogenesis, is critical to the progression of gliomas, with vascular changes accompanying the advancement of these tumors. The cascade of events in this process of blood vessel formation involves a(More)
Meningiomas are the most common primary nervous system tumor. The tumor suppressor NF2 is disrupted in approximately half of all meningiomas, but the complete spectrum of genetic changes remains undefined. We performed whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing on 17 meningiomas and focused sequencing on an additional 48 tumors to identify and validate somatic(More)