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We have performed sciatic axotomies in adult C57BL/6 mice and observed TDP-43 and progranulin (PGRN) expression patterns over 28 days. TDP-43 expression was markedly upregulated in axotomized motor neurons, with prominent cytosolic immunoreactivity becoming maximal by post-injury day 7 and returning to baseline levels by post-injury day 28. Increased TDP-43(More)
Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is key for cell survival, migration, and adhesion, but little is known about its role in epidermal development and homeostasis in vivo. We generated mice with conditional inactivation of the Ilk gene in squamous epithelia. These mice die perinatally and exhibit skin blistering and severe defects in hair follicle morphogenesis,(More)
Hair follicle morphogenesis requires coordination of multiple signals and communication between its epithelial and mesenchymal constituents. Cell adhesion protein platforms, which include integrins and integrin-linked kinase (ILK), are critical for hair follicle formation. However, their precise contribution to this process is poorly understood. We show(More)
The vesicular acetylcholine (ACh) transporter (VAChT) mediates ACh storage by synaptic vesicles. However, the VAChT-independent release of ACh is believed to be important during development. Here we generated VAChT knockout mice and tested the physiological relevance of the VAChT-independent release of ACh. Homozygous VAChT knockout mice died shortly after(More)
TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43) mislocalization has been implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We have recently reported that TDP-43 and PGRN expression is altered in response to axotomy in C57BL6 mice and that normal expression is restored following recovery. We have performed axotomies in two different presymptomatic(More)
Fibrosis represents a common pathway leading to organ failure and death in many diseases and has no effective therapy. Dysregulated repair and excessive tissue scarring provides a unifying mechanism for pathological fibrosis. The protein phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) acts to dephosphorylate proteins, which promotes tissue repair and thus could be a(More)
OBJECTIVE Osteoarthritis (OA) is a serious disease of the entire joint, characterized by articular cartilage degeneration, subchondral bone changes, osteophyte formation, and synovial hyperplasia. Currently, there are no pharmaceutical treatments that can slow the disease progression, resulting in greatly reduced quality of life for patients and the need(More)
The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; Ile, Leu, and Val) not only are important nutrients for the growth of Staphylococcus aureus but also are corepressors for CodY, which regulates virulence gene expression, implicating BCAAs as an important link between the metabolic state of the cell and virulence. BCAAs are either synthesized intracellularly or(More)
BACKGROUND Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in mice results in a brain infarct, the volume of which depends on the length of occlusion. Following permanent occlusion, neuropathological changes - including a robust glial inflammatory response - also occur downstream of the infarct in the spinal cord. METHODS We have performed short, transient MCAo(More)
INTRODUCTION Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating disease with poorly defined aetiology. Multiple signals are involved in directing the formation of cartilage during development and the vitamin A derivatives, the retinoids, figure prominently in embryonic cartilage formation. In the present study, we examined the expression of a retinoid-regulated gene in(More)