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To explore the potential for use of ligand-conjugated nanocrystals to target cell surface receptors, ion channels, and transporters, we explored the ability of serotonin-labeled CdSe nanocrystals (SNACs) to interact with antidepressant-sensitive, human and Drosophila serotonin transporters (hSERT, dSERT) expressed in HeLa and HEK-293 cells. Unlike(More)
The human serotonin transporter (SERT) gene possesses a 43-base pair (bp) insertion-deletion promoter polymorphism, the h5-HTTLPR. Genotype at this locus correlates with variation in anxiety-related personality traits and risk for major depressive disorder in many studies. Yet, the complex effects of the h5-HTTLPR, in combination with closely associated(More)
Semiconductor quantum dots are quickly becoming a critical diagnostic tool for discerning cellular function at the molecular level. Their high brightness, long-lasting, size-tunable, and narrow luminescence set them apart from conventional fluorescence dyes. Quantum dots are being developed for a variety of biologically oriented applications, including(More)
The presynaptic serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) is targeted by widely prescribed antidepressant medications. Altered SERT expression or regulation has been implicated in multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, including anxiety, depression and autism. Here, we implement a generalizable strategy that exploits antagonist-conjugated quantum dots (Qdots) to(More)
Functionalization of highly fluorescent CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals (quantum dots, qdots) is an emerging technology for labeling cell surface proteins. We have synthesized a conjugate consisting of approximately 150-200 muscimols (a GABA receptor agonist) covalently joined to the qdot via a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) linker (approximately 78 ethylene(More)
Nonspecific binding is a frequently encountered problem with fluorescent labeling of tissue cultures when labeled with quantum dots. In these studies various cell lines were examined for nonspecific binding. Evidence suggests that nonspecific binding is related to cell type and may be significantly reduced by functionalizing quantum dots with poly(ethylene(More)
Pre-synaptic norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) transporters (NET and DAT) terminate catecholamine synaptic transmission through reuptake of released neurotransmitter. Recent studies reveal that NET and DAT are tightly regulated by receptor and second messenger-linked signaling pathways. Common approaches for studying these transporters involve use of(More)
Highly fluorescent CdSe quantum dots (qdots) can serve as a platform for tethering multiple copies of a receptor-targeted ligand, affording study of how the level of multivalency affects receptor binding. We previously showed that qdots conjugated with long PEG chains terminated by muscimol, a known GABA(C) agonist, exhibit specific binding to the surface(More)
The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (SERT) protein plays a central role in terminating 5-HT neurotransmission and is the most important therapeutic target for the treatment of major depression and anxiety disorders. We report an innovative, versatile, and target-selective quantum dot (QD) labeling approach for SERT in single Xenopus (More)
The presynaptic dopamine (DA) transporter is responsible for DA inactivation following release and is a major target for the psychostimulants cocaine and amphetamine. Dysfunction and/or polymorphisms in human DAT (SLC6A3) have been associated with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Parkinson's disease, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).(More)