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Regulated blood production is achieved through the hierarchical organization of dormant hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) subsets that differ in self-renewal potential and division frequency, with long-term (LT)-HSCs dividing the least. The molecular mechanisms underlying this variability in HSC division kinetics are unknown. We report here that quiescence exit(More)
Understanding how differentiation programs originate from the gene-expression 'landscape' of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is crucial for the development of new clinical therapies. We mapped the transcriptional dynamics underlying the first steps of commitment by tracking transcriptome changes in human HSCs and eight early progenitor populations. We found(More)
Routine use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in developing countries is expected to lead to a significant reduction in childhood deaths. However, PCVs have been associated with replacement disease with non-vaccine serotypes. We established a population-based surveillance system to document the direct and indirect impact of PCVs on the incidence of(More)
We aimed to model the incidence of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis among adults using data on infection incidence in children, disease prevalence in adults, and social contact patterns. We conducted a cross-sectional face-to-face survey of adults in 2011, enumerating "close" (shared conversation) and "casual" (shared indoor space) social contacts(More)
BACKGROUND Little information is available about the effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in low-income countries. We measured the effect of these vaccines on invasive pneumococcal disease in The Gambia where the 7-valent vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in August, 2009, followed by the 13-valent vaccine (PCV13) in May, 2011. METHODS We conducted(More)
The South African Ministry of Health has proposed screening all clinic attendees for tuberculosis (TB). Amongst other factors, male sex and bar attendance are associated with higher TB risk. We show that 45% of adults surveyed in Western Cape attended a clinic within 6 months, and therefore potentially a relatively high proportion of the population could be(More)
BACKGROUND In high incidence settings, the majority of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) transmission occurs outside the household. Little is known about where people's indoor contacts occur outside the household, and how this differs between different settings. We estimate the number of contact hours that occur between adults and adult/youths and children(More)
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