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  • Srinivasan Madhusudan, Fiona Smart, Paul Shrimpton, Jason L. Parsons, Laurence Gardiner, Sue Houlbrook +6 others
  • 2005
The base excision repair (BER) pathway is essential for the removal of DNA bases damaged by alkylation or oxidation. A key step in BER is the processing of an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site intermediate by an AP endonuclease. The major AP endonuclease in human cells (APE1, also termed HAP1 and Ref-1) accounts for >95% of the total AP endonuclease activity,(More)
BLM and WRN, the products of the Bloom's and Werner's syndrome genes, are members of the RecQ family of DNA helicases. Although both have been shown previously to unwind simple, partial duplex DNA substrates with 3'-->5' polarity, little is known about the structural features of DNA that determine the substrate specificities of these enzymes. We have(More)
A double Holliday junction (dHJ) is a central intermediate of homologous recombination that can be processed to yield crossover or non-crossover recombination products. To preserve genomic integrity, cells possess mechanisms to avoid crossing over. We show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sgs1 and Top3 proteins are sufficient to migrate and disentangle a dHJ(More)
The Bloom's syndrome helicase, BLM, is a member of the highly conserved RecQ family, and possesses both DNA unwinding and DNA strand annealing activities. BLM also promotes branch migration of Holliday junctions. One role for BLM is to act in conjunction with topoisomerase IIIalpha to process homologous recombination (HR) intermediates containing a double(More)
In S. cerevisiae, mutations in genes that encode telomerase components, such as the genes EST1, EST2, EST3, and TLC1, result in the loss of telomerase activity in vivo. Two telomerase-independent mechanisms can overcome the resulting senescence. Type I survival is characterized by amplification of the subtelomeric Y' elements with a short telomere repeat(More)
The product of the gene mutated in Bloom's syndrome, BLM, is a 3'-5' DNA helicase belonging to the highly conserved RecQ family. In addition to a conventional DNA strand separation activity, BLM catalyzes both the disruption of non-B-form DNA, such as G-quadruplexes, and the branch migration of Holliday junctions. Here, we have characterized a new activity(More)
Bloom's syndrome is a recessive human genetic disorder associated with an elevated incidence of many types of cancer. The Bloom's syndrome gene product, BLM, belongs to the RecQ subfamily of DNA helicases and is required for the maintenance of genomic stability in human cells - in particular, the suppression of reciprocal exchanges between sister(More)
We visualized DNA topoisomerases in A431 cells and isolated chromosomes by isoenzyme-selective immunofluorescence microscopy. In interphase, topoisomerase I mainly had a homogeneous nuclear distribution. 10-15% of the cells exhibited granular patterns, 30% showed bright intranucleolar patches. Topoisomerase II isoenzymes showed spotted (alpha) or reticular(More)
Repair of DNA double-strand breaks via homologous recombination can produce double Holliday junctions (dHJs) that require enzymatic separation. Topoisomerase IIIα (TopIIIα) together with RMI1 disentangles the final hemicatenane intermediate obtained once dHJs have converged. How binding of RMI1 to TopIIIα influences it to behave as a hemicatenane(More)