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The serine/threonine protein kinase ATM signals to cell cycle and DNA repair components by phosphorylating downstream targets such as p53, CHK2, NBS1, and BRCA1. Mutation of ATM occurs in the human autosomal recessive disorder ataxia-telangiectasia, which is characterized by hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation and a failure of cells to arrest the cell(More)
BRCA1 and BRCA2 are important for DNA double-strand break repair by homologous recombination, and mutations in these genes predispose to breast and other cancers. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is an enzyme involved in base excision repair, a key pathway in the repair of DNA single-strand breaks. We show here that BRCA1 or BRCA2 dysfunction unexpectedly(More)
Mutations in BLM, which encodes a RecQ helicase, give rise to Bloom's syndrome, a disorder associated with cancer predisposition and genomic instability. A defining feature of Bloom's syndrome is an elevated frequency of sister chromatid exchanges. These arise from crossing over of chromatid arms during homologous recombination, a ubiquitous process that(More)
BLM and WRN, the products of the Bloom's and Werner's syndrome genes, are members of the RecQ family of DNA helicases. Although both have been shown previously to unwind simple, partial duplex DNA substrates with 3'-->5' polarity, little is known about the structural features of DNA that determine the substrate specificities of these enzymes. We have(More)
The base excision repair (BER) pathway is essential for the removal of DNA bases damaged by alkylation or oxidation. A key step in BER is the processing of an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site intermediate by an AP endonuclease. The major AP endonuclease in human cells (APE1, also termed HAP1 and Ref-1) accounts for >95% of the total AP endonuclease activity,(More)
Topoisomerase II (topo II) catalyzes the decatenation of interlinked DNA molecules and is essential for chromosome segregation. To test the hypothesis that the noncatalytic C-terminal domain of topo II is necessary for mediating interactions with other proteins required for chromosome segregation, we used a two-hybrid cloning strategy to identify proteins(More)
A double Holliday junction (dHJ) is a central intermediate of homologous recombination that can be processed to yield crossover or non-crossover recombination products. To preserve genomic integrity, cells possess mechanisms to avoid crossing over. We show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sgs1 and Top3 proteins are sufficient to migrate and disentangle a dHJ(More)
The structure of the major human apurinic/ apyrimidinic endonuclease (HAP1) has been solved at 2.2 A resolution. The enzyme consists of two symmetrically related domains of similar topology and has significant structural similarity to both bovine DNase I and its Escherichia coli homologue exonuclease III (EXOIII). A structural comparison of these enzymes(More)
Bloom's syndrome (BS) and Fanconi anemia (FA) are autosomal recessive disorders characterized by cancer and chromosomal instability. BS and FA group J arise from mutations in the BLM and FANCJ genes, respectively, which encode DNA helicases. In this work, FANCJ and BLM were found to interact physically and functionally in human cells and co-localize to(More)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae top2 mutants deficient in topoisomerase II activity are defective in chromosome segregation during both mitotic and meiotic cell divisions. To identify proteins that act in concert with topoisomerase II during chromosome segregation in S.cerevisiae, we have used a two-hybrid cloning approach. We report the isolation of the PAT1 gene(More)