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Male sexual development in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans requires the genes fem-1, fem-2, and fem-3. The current model of sex determination portrays the FEM proteins as components of a novel signal transduction pathway, but the mechanisms involved in signaling through the pathway are not understood. We report the isolation of fem-2 cDNAs in a yeast(More)
The C. elegans genome encodes a single Eph receptor tyrosine kinase, VAB-1, which functions in neurons to control epidermal morphogenesis. Four members of the ephrin family of ligands for Eph receptors have been identified in C. elegans. Three ephrins (EFN-1/VAB-2, EFN-2 and EFN-3) have been previously shown to function in VAB-1 signaling. We show that(More)
The development of the epidermis of the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans illustrates many common processes of epithelial morphogenesis. In the worm, these morphogenetic movements have been described with single-cell resolution, and the roles of individual cells have been probed in laser killing experiments. Genetic dissection is yielding insights into(More)
The Eph receptor VAB-1 is required in neurons for epidermal morphogenesis during C. elegans embryogenesis. Two models were proposed for the non-autonomous role of VAB-1: neuronal VAB-1 might signal directly to epidermis, or VAB-1 signaling between neurons might be required for epidermal development. We show that the ephrin VAB-2 (also known as EFN-1) is a(More)
Mutations that affect the single C. elegans Eph receptor tyrosine kinase VAB-1 cause defects in cell movements during embryogenesis. Here, we provide genetic and molecular evidence that the VAB-1 Eph receptor functions with another neuronal receptor, SAX-3/Robo, for proper embryogenesis. Our analysis of sax-3 mutants shows that SAX-3/Robo functions with the(More)
The tumor suppressor PTEN is a major brake for cell transformation, mainly due to its phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P3] phosphatase activity that directly counteracts the oncogenicity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PTEN mutations are frequent in tumors and in the germ line of patients with tumor predisposition or with neurological(More)
Allatostatins (ASTs) are multifunctional neuropeptides that generally act in an inhibitory fashion. ASTs were identified as inhibitors of juvenile hormone biosynthesis. Juvenile hormone regulates insect metamorphosis, reproduction, food intake, growth, and development. Drosophila melanogaster RNAi lines of PheGlyLeu-amide-ASTs (FGLa/ASTs) and their cognate(More)
The Eph receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are regulators of cell migration and axon guidance. However, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which Eph RTKs regulate these processes is still incomplete. To understand how Eph receptors regulate axon guidance in Caenorhabditis elegans, we screened for suppressors of axon guidance defects caused by a(More)
To understand how our brains function, it is necessary to know how neurons position themselves and target their axons and dendrites to their correct locations. Several evolutionarily conserved axon guidance molecules have been shown to help navigate axons to their correct target site. The Caenorhabditis elegans Eph receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), VAB-1, has(More)
Movement in Caenorhabditis elegans is the result of sensory cues creating stimulatory and inhibitory output from sensory neurons. Four interneurons (AIA, AIB, AIY, and AIZ) are the primary recipients of this information that is further processed en route to motor neurons and muscle contraction. C. elegans has >1,000 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), and(More)