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Well-drained non-agricultural soils mediate the oxidation of methane directly from the atmosphere, contributing 5 to 10% towards the global methane sink. Studies of methane oxidation kinetics in soil infer the activity of two methanotrophic populations: one that is only active at high methane concentrations (low affinity) and another that tolerates(More)
In an effort to understand the relationships between both the lipid content and delta13C values of Collembola and their diet, isotopically labelled (C3 and C4) bakers' yeasts were cultured and fed to two Collembolan species, Folsomia candida and Proisotoma minuta. The fatty acid composition of Collembola generally reflected that of the diet with the(More)
The introduction of (13)C-labelled substrates to soils, sediments or cultures followed by (13)C analysis of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) provides quantitative and chemotaxonomic information for the groups of microorganisms utilizing a given substrate. Gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry has provided the high precision necessary(More)
Tracing the evolution of ancient diseases depends on the availability and accessibility of suitable biomarkers in archaeological specimens. DNA is potentially information-rich but it depends on a favourable environment for preservation. In the case of the major mycobacterial pathogens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, robust lipid(More)
Today, insular Southeast Asia is important for both its remarkably rich biodiversity and globally significant roles in atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Despite the fundamental importance of environmental history for diversity and conservation, there is little primary evidence concerning the nature of vegetation in north equatorial Southeast Asia during(More)
The objective of this study was to assess archaeol, a membrane lipid present in methanogenic Archaea, in cattle feces as a molecular proxy for methanogenesis in the rumen. Feces from 16 heifers either in early lactation [71 d in milk (DIM)] or mid lactation (120 DIM), consuming a diet consisting of 30/70 grass silage/concentrates [dry matter (DM) basis],(More)
Seventy-one individuals from the late Neolithic population of the 7000-year-old site of Hódmezővásárhely-Gorzsa were examined for their skeletal palaeopathology. This revealed numerous cases of infections and non-specific stress indicators in juveniles and adults, metabolic diseases in juveniles, and evidence of trauma and mechanical changes in adults.(More)
When fractionating natural and standard lipid mixtures according to the most widely used method for the analysis of soil and other environmental materials, free fatty acids (FFAs) were not recovered quantitatively in the fraction expected to contain all simple lipids. Rather than being eluted from activated silicic acid adsorption chromatographic columns(More)
Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) has become a popular method for estimation of methanogen abundance in the ruminant digestive tract. However, there is no established method in terms of primer choice and quantification, which means that results are variable and not directly comparable between studies. Archaeol has been proposed as an alternative marker for(More)