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Atomistic simulations of protein folding have the potential to be a great complement to experimental studies, but have been severely limited by the time scales accessible with current computer hardware and algorithms. By employing a worldwide distributed computing network of tens of thousands of PCs and algorithms designed to efficiently utilize this new(More)
This paper presents a new method for determining the microstructural location of impurities in polycrystalline ice, which involves allowing the ice to sublimate under vacuum and then identifying the concentrated impurities using energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis in a low-vacuum scanning electron microscope. The method allows the presence of impurities(More)
In July 2012, over 97% of the Greenland Ice Sheet experienced surface melt, the first widespread melt during the era of satellite remote sensing. Analysis of six Greenland shallow firn cores from the dry snow region confirms that the most recent prior widespread melt occurred in 1889. A firn core from the center of the ice sheet demonstrated that(More)
Knowing the orientations of the ice crystals in a polycrystalline aggregate is essential for understanding and modeling the flow of naturally occurring ice. Here we show, for the first time, that the orientation of crystals in polycrystalline ice can be determined with a higher angular and spatial resolution and more rapidly than any currently used method(More)
We explore the properties of the signal from magnetic nanoparticles. The nanoparticle signal has been used to generate images in magnetic particle imaging (MPI). MPI promises to be one of the most sensitive methods of imaging small numbers magnetic nanoparticles and therefore shows promise for molecular imaging. The nanoparticle signal is generated with a(More)
Active molecular targeting has become an important aspect of nanoparticle development for oncology indications. Here, we describe molecular targeting of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) to the folate receptor alpha (FOLRα) using an engineered antibody fragment (Ffab). Compared to control nanoparticles targeting the non-relevant botulinum toxin, the(More)
β-III spectrin is present in the brain and is known to be important in the function of the cerebellum. Heterozygous mutations in SPTBN2, the gene encoding β-III spectrin, cause Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 5 (SCA5), an adult-onset, slowly progressive, autosomal-dominant pure cerebellar ataxia. SCA5 is sometimes known as "Lincoln ataxia," because the largest(More)
Active systems, using a near-infrared pulse laser and a fast, gated detector, are now adopted for most long range imaging applications. This concept is often called laser-gated imaging (LGI) or burst-illumination LIDAR (BIL). The SELEX solid state detector is based on an array of HgCdTe avalanche photodiodes, and a custom-designed CMOS multiplexer to(More)
b-III spectrin is present in the brain and is known to be important in the function of the cerebellum. Heterozygous mutations in SPTBN2, the gene encoding b-III spectrin, cause Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 5 (SCA5), an adult-onset, slowly progressive, autosomal-dominant pure cerebellar ataxia. SCA5 is sometimes known as ‘‘Lincoln ataxia,’’ because the(More)