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We describe Freenet, an adaptive peer-to-peer network application that permits the publication, replication, and retrieval of data while protecting the anonymity of both authors and readers. Freenet operates as a network of identical nodes that collectively pool their storage space to store data les and cooperate to route requests to the most likely(More)
The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis suggests that neoplastic clones are maintained exclusively by a rare fraction of cells with stem cell properties. Although the existence of CSCs in human leukaemia is established, little evidence exists for CSCs in solid tumours, except for breast cancer. Recently, we prospectively isolated a CD133+ cell subpopulation(More)
Most current research on human brain tumors is focused on the molecular and cellular analysis of the bulk tumor mass. However, there is overwhelming evidence in some malignancies that the tumor clone is heterogeneous with respect to proliferation and differentiation. In human leukemia, the tumor clone is organized as a hierarchy that originates from rare(More)
These considerations were important when Ian Clarke devised Freenet. This system uses a decentralized peer-to-peer architecture in which each node provides data storage to store files to share with peers. In Freenet, each file automatically assigns itself a location-independent and globally unique identifier (GUID), a special kind of key which Freenet uses(More)
Human brain tumors appear to have a hierarchical cellular organization suggestive of a stem cell foundation. In vitro expansion of the putative cancer stem cells as stable cell lines would provide a powerful model system to study their biology. Here, we demonstrate routine and efficient derivation of adherent cell lines from malignant glioma that display(More)
Most current research on human brain tumors is focused on the molecular and cellular analysis of the bulk tumor mass. However, evidence in leukemia and more recently in solid tumors such as breast cancer suggests that the tumor cell population is heterogeneous with respect to proliferation and differentiation. Recently, several groups have described the(More)
Freenet is a distributed, Internet-wide peer-to-peer overlay network designed to allow anonymized and censorship resistant publication and distribution of information. The system functions as a distributed hashtable, where participating computers store information which can be retrieved by any other participant. In this paper we describe a new architecture(More)
Ependymomas are common childhood brain tumours that occur throughout the nervous system, but are most common in the paediatric hindbrain. Current standard therapy comprises surgery and radiation, but not cytotoxic chemotherapy as it does not further increase survival. Whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing of 47 hindbrain ependymomas reveals an extremely(More)
We discovered a high-level amplicon involving the chr19q13.41 microRNA (miRNA) cluster (C19MC) in 11/45 ( approximately 25%) primary CNS-PNET, which results in striking overexpression of miR-517c and 520g. Constitutive expression of miR-517c or 520g promotes in vitro and in vivo oncogenicity, modulates cell survival, and robustly enhances growth of(More)
Subpopulations of tumorigenic cells have been identified in many human tumors, although these cells may not be very rare in some types of cancer. Here, we report that medulloblastomas arising from Patched-1-deficient mice contain a subpopulation of cells that show a neural precursor phenotype, clonogenic and multilineage differentiation capacity, activated(More)