Ian Carmichael

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Microfocal radiography, producing x5 magnified images of the wrist and hands with a high spacial resolution (25 microns) in the film, permitted direct measurement of erosion area and joint space width in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The magnitude of errors relating to direct measurement, repositioning the wrist and hand on successive x ray visits,(More)
There have been many systems developed that attempt to recover design and structure from code. In this paper, we present our experience with using one such tool, SoFi, to extract design structure from a large industrial system written in C. We compare the extracted structure to that which was intended by the designers of the system. We observe and(More)
Suspended bed chromatography (SBC) is a new hybrid technique concomitantly benefiting from batch adsorption, the process advantages of an enclosed system, and its compatibility with established commercial chromatographic contactors and adsorbents. SBC was evaluated in the anion-exchange capture and chromatographic fractionation of native(More)
Methyl alpha- and beta-pyranosides of d-glucose and d-galactose 1-4 were prepared containing single sites of (13)C-enrichment at C4, C5, and C6 (12 compounds), and (1)H and (13)C[(1)H] NMR spectra were obtained to determine a complete set of J-couplings ((1)J, (2)J, and (3)J) involving the labeled carbon and nearby protons and carbons within the exocyclic(More)
Experimental and theoretical methods have been used to correlate (2)J(HH) and (3)J(HH) values within the exocyclic hydroxymethyl groups (CH(2)OH) of saccharides with specific molecular parameters, and new equations are proposed to assist in the structural interpretation of these couplings. (3)J(HH) depends mainly on the C-C torsion angle (omega) as(More)
Radiation damage can be a problem when utilizing ionizing X-radiation in macromolecular crystallography. The dose dependence of radiation damage to eight lysozyme crystals at room temperature (292 K) was investigated in order to provide an accurate comparison with cryotemperature (100 K) results and to allow researchers to calculate expected maximum(More)
We present high-resolution measurements of the dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to isolated gas-phase hypoxanthine (C5H4N4O, Hyp), a tRNA purine base. The anion mass spectra and individual ion efficiency curves from Hyp were measured as a function of electron energy below 9 eV. The mass spectra at 1 and 6 eV exhibit the highest anion yields,(More)
An extensive radiation chemistry literature would suggest that the addition of certain radical scavengers might mitigate the effects of radiation damage during protein crystallography diffraction data collection. However, attempts to demonstrate and quantify such an amelioration and its dose dependence have not yielded consistent results, either at room(More)