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Kin selection theory predicts that individuals will show less aggression and more altruism towards relatives. However, recent theoretical developments suggest that with limited dispersal, competition between relatives can override the effects of relatedness. The predicted and opposing influences of relatedness and competition are difficult to approach(More)
Females of the parasitoid wasp Goniozus nephantidis paralyse host caterpillars and lay a clutch of up to 18 eggs onto the host integument. The known biology of G. nephantidis suggests that matings occur exclusively between siblings from the same brood. This leads to the prediction that brood sex ratios should be highly female-biased and have low variance.(More)
The existence of spiteful behaviors remains controversial. Spiteful behaviors are those that are harmful to both the actor and the recipient, and they represent one of the four fundamental types of social behavior (alongside selfishness, altruism, and mutual benefit). It has generally been assumed that the conditions required for spite to evolve are too(More)
Queues, in which individuals inherit resources in a predictable, temporally stable order, are widespread in animal social groups. We develop an analytic model to explore the effect of differential survivorship on the stability of a reproductive queue. We show that unless fighting for dominance is potentially fatal, future direct benefits are not alone(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments on the sex ratio of babies born. DESIGN Assessment of direct effects of assisted conception through retrospective data analysis on the progeny sex ratio of treated women in the United Kingdom. SETTING The study uses the anonymized register of the Human Fertilisation(More)
Animal interactions often involve chemical exchange but simultaneous evaluation of chemistry and behaviour has been problematical. Here we report findings from a novel method, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) coupled with manipulation of molecular-mass achieved by rearing organisms on deuterium-enhanced nutrients. This(More)
Understanding the size of clutches produced by only one parent may require a game-theoretic approach: clutch size may affect offspring fitness in terms of future competitive ability. If larger clutches generate smaller offspring and larger adults are more successful in acquiring and retaining resources, clutch size optima should be reduced when the(More)