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The dopamine system has been linked to anhedonia in depression and both the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, but it remains unclear how dopamine dysfunction could mechanistically relate to observed symptoms. There is considerable evidence that phasic dopamine signals encode prediction error (differences between expected and actual outcomes),(More)
Anhedonia is a core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD), long thought to be associated with reduced dopaminergic function. However, most antidepressants do not act directly on the dopamine system and all antidepressants have a delayed full therapeutic effect. Recently, it has been proposed that antidepressants fail to alter dopamine function in(More)
The consumption of, and preference for, a rewarding 0.9% sucrose solution was examined in rats subjected chronically (8 wk) to a regimen of unpredictable mild stressors. Intake of sucrose was reduced in stressed animals compared to controls after 3 wk. However, correction for body weight changes revealed no significant difference in sucrose consumption(More)
To date, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most potent treatment in severe depression. Although ECT has been successfully applied in clinical practice for over 70 years, the underlying mechanisms of action remain unclear. We used functional MRI and a unique data-driven analysis approach to examine functional connectivity in the brain before and after(More)
Sucrose consumption and preference were examined in rats subjected to a 6-week regimen of unpredictable mild stressors, after Willner et al. (11). These subjects were compared with groups exposed to: 1. only the food deprivation element of the stress protocol; or 2. the stress protocol without the food deprivation element. A control group was not exposed to(More)
BACKGROUND Depression is common in later life. AIMS To determine whether exercise is effective as an adjunct to antidepressant therapy in reducing depressive symptoms in older people. METHOD Patients were randomised to attend either exercise classes or health education talks for 10 weeks. Assessments were made "blind" at baseline, and at 10 and 34(More)
RATIONALE Recent studies have implicated intracellular transduction pathways and neurotrophic factors in the action of antidepressants. Adaptation in these pathways may ultimately affect electrophysiological and morphological properties of neurones. We have previously shown that repeated electroconvulsive stimulation, a safe and effective antidepressant(More)
Increased psychophysiological resistance to chronic stress has been related to increased 5-HT release in the dorsal hippocampus. This study investigated the changes in 5-HT release and turnover in the hippocampus evoked by acute and repeated exposure to an inescapable stressor, an elevated open platform, and compared them to the changes evoked in the(More)
Electrical induction of seizure activity profoundly impairs hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in rats. A similar effect may account for the memory dysfunction observed after electroconvulsive stimulation in humans and other species. The co-administration of ketamine with the induction of electroconvulsive seizures (ECS) was evaluated as a possible(More)