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BACKGROUND Psychomotor studies suggest that commonly prescribed psychoactive drugs impair driving skills. We have examined the association between the use of psychoactive drugs and road-traffic accidents. METHODS We used dispensed prescribing as a measure of exposure in a within-person case-crossover study of drivers aged 18 years and over, resident in(More)
The dopamine system has been linked to anhedonia in depression and both the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, but it remains unclear how dopamine dysfunction could mechanistically relate to observed symptoms. There is considerable evidence that phasic dopamine signals encode prediction error (differences between expected and actual outcomes),(More)
The consumption of, and preference for, a rewarding 0.9% sucrose solution was examined in rats subjected chronically (8 wk) to a regimen of unpredictable mild stressors. Intake of sucrose was reduced in stressed animals compared to controls after 3 wk. However, correction for body weight changes revealed no significant difference in sucrose consumption(More)
BACKGROUND Depression is common in later life. AIMS To determine whether exercise is effective as an adjunct to antidepressant therapy in reducing depressive symptoms in older people. METHOD Patients were randomised to attend either exercise classes or health education talks for 10 weeks. Assessments were made "blind" at baseline, and at 10 and 34(More)
Sucrose consumption and preference were examined in rats subjected to a 6-week regimen of unpredictable mild stressors, after Willner et al. (11). These subjects were compared with groups exposed to: 1. only the food deprivation element of the stress protocol; or 2. the stress protocol without the food deprivation element. A control group was not exposed to(More)
To date, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most potent treatment in severe depression. Although ECT has been successfully applied in clinical practice for over 70 years, the underlying mechanisms of action remain unclear. We used functional MRI and a unique data-driven analysis approach to examine functional connectivity in the brain before and after(More)
PURPOSE Depression is common in primary care. There are no systematic reviews of depression treatment comparing antidepressants with placebo; hence, we do not know whether these medications are effective in primary care. METHODS We searched the Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group register of controlled trials, MEDLINE,(More)
Anhedonia is a core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD), long thought to be associated with reduced dopaminergic function. However, most antidepressants do not act directly on the dopamine system and all antidepressants have a delayed full therapeutic effect. Recently, it has been proposed that antidepressants fail to alter dopamine function in(More)
OBJECTIVE Recent evidence suggests that signalling cascades located downstream of monoamine receptors are altered following antidepressant treatment. Our objective was to investigate whether genetic polymorphisms in genes involved in these signalling cascades influenced antidepressant efficacy. METHODS Polymorphisms in the G-protein beta subunit GNB3, the(More)