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We have used Southern hybridization analysis to characterize the extent of fim homology in recognized type 1 fimbriae mutants of Escherichia coli K12, including strains HB101, P678-54, and VL584. We have found extensive homology in strain HB101, and confirm that P678-54 lacks the majority of fim DNA. Strain VL584 contains a deletion of the entire fim(More)
Expression of type 1 fimbriae in Escherichia coli K-12 is phase variable and associated with the inversion of a short DNA element (switch). The fim switch requires either fimB (on-to-off or off-to-on switching) or fimE (on-to-off switching only) and is affected by the global regulators leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp), integration host factor(More)
The site-specific DNA inversion that controls phase variation of type 1 fimbriation in E. coli is catalysed by two recombinases, FimB and FimE. Efficient inversion by either recombinase also requires the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp). In addition, FimB recombination is stimulated by the integration host factor (IHF). The effect of IHF on FimE(More)
The phase variation of type 1 fimbriae in Escherichia coli is associated with the site-specific inversion of a short DNA element. Recombination at fim requires fimB and fimE, and their products are considered to be the fim recombinases. In this study, FimB and FimE were overproduced and extracts containing the proteins were shown to (i) bind to and (ii)(More)
To facilitate efficient allelic exchange of genetic information into a wild-type strain background, we improved upon and merged approaches using a temperature-sensitive plasmid and a counter-selectable marker in the chromosome. We first constructed intermediate strains of Escherichia coli K12 in which we replaced wild-type chromosomal sequences, at either(More)
The ability of bacterial pathogens to bind to the host mucosa is a critical step in the pathogenesis of many bacterial infections and, for Escherichia coli, a large number of different fimbrial adhesins have been implicated as virulence factors. In this chapter, our current understanding of the regulatory mechanisms that control the expression of two of the(More)
Phase variation of type 1 fimbriation in Escherichia coli is associated with the site-specific recombination of a 314-bp DNA invertible element. The fim switch directs transcription of fimA, the major fimbrial subunit gene, in one orientation (on) but not the other (off). Switching requires either fimB (on-to-off or off-to-on inversion) or fimE (on-to-off(More)
We reexamined the influence of fimE, also referred to as hyp, on type 1 fimbriation in Escherichia coli K-12. We found that one strain used previously and extensively in the analysis of type 1 fimbriation, strain CSH50, is in fact a fimE mutant; the fimE gene of CSH50 contains a copy of the insertion sequence IS1. Using a recently described allelic exchange(More)
Bacterial-host attachment by means of bacterial adhesins is a key step in host colonization. Phase variation (reversible on-off switching) of the type 1 fimbrial adhesin of Escherichia coli involves a DNA inversion catalyzed by FimB (switching in either direction) or FimE (mainly on-to-off switching). fimB is separated from the divergent yjhATS operon by a(More)
The defining feature of bacterial phase variation is a stochastic 'all-or-nothing' switching in gene expression. However, direct observations of these rare switching events have so far been lacking, obscuring possible correlations between switching events themselves, and between switching and other cellular events, such as division and DNA replication. We(More)