Many bacterial pathogens produce extracellular proteases that degrade the extracellular matrix of the host and therefore are involved in disease pathogenesis. Dichelobacter nodosus is the causative agent of ovine footrot, a highly contagious disease that is characterized by the separation of the hoof from the underlying tissue. D. nodosus secretes three… (More)
Infectious wildlife diseases have enormous global impacts, leading to human pandemics, global biodiversity declines and socio-economic hardship. Understanding how infection persists and is transmitted in wildlife is critical for managing diseases, but our understanding is limited. Our study aim was to better understand how infectious disease persists in… (More)
Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) is a fish disease of international significance and reportable to the Office International des Epizootics. In June 2010, bony herring Nematalosa erebi, golden perch Macquaria ambigua, Murray cod Maccullochella peelii and spangled perch Leiopotherapon unicolor with severe ulcers were sampled from the Murray-Darling River… (More)
Adult strabismus surgery has long been regarded as cosmetic. This paper summarises the current evidence that this statement should be discarded. The evidence shows that strabismus surgery in non-diplopic adult patients can be beneficial in both functional and psychological situations. It is suggested that the term cosmetic would be better replaced by… (More)
A retrospective review of 30 patients with eso/exodeviations less than 20 prism diopters (PD) who underwent one injection of BPX into their medial/lateral rectus was carried out. Preoperative deviations were recorded in PD, using the alternate prism cover test. Postoperative angles at 1 and 3 months were measured in the same manner. 11 out of 30 patients… (More)
INTRODUCTION The natural history of congenital Brown Syndrome is poorly understood and documented. In our experience, few adult cases are encountered in clinical practice. CASE PRESENTATION A case of bilateral congenital Brown syndrome is described, showing spontaneous resolution of clinical signs. Evidence of almost complete resolution over the years is… (More)
Botulinum toxin in ophthalmology is used to reduce the function of the eyelid muscles in spasms or therapeutically. Therapeutic and diagnostic use in strabismus is also discussed, along with the controversial treatment of nystagmus.