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BACKGROUND Increases in prescriptions of opioid medications for chronic pain have been accompanied by increases in opioid overdoses, abuse, and other harms and uncertainty about long-term effectiveness. PURPOSE To evaluate evidence on the effectiveness and harms of long-term (>3 months) opioid therapy for chronic pain in adults. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE,(More)
BACKGROUND Screening can detect prostate cancer at earlier, asymptomatic stages, when treatments might be more effective. PURPOSE To update the 2002 and 2008 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force evidence reviews on screening and treatments for prostate cancer. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE (2002 to July 2011) and the Cochrane Library Database (through second(More)
BACKGROUND Pressure ulcers are associated with substantial health burdens but may be preventable. PURPOSE To review the clinical utility of pressure ulcer risk assessment instruments and the comparative effectiveness of preventive interventions in persons at higher risk. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE (1946 through November 2012), CINAHL, the Cochrane Library,(More)
Importance Cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the United States, may be potentially preventable with statin therapy. Objective To systematically review benefits and harms of statins for prevention of CVD to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force. Data Sources Ovid MEDLINE (from 1946), Cochrane Central(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE The prevalence of hypertension is increasing in children, and may persist into adulthood. This systematic review was conducted for the US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation on the effectiveness of screening asymptomatic children and adolescents for hypertension in order to prevent cardiovascular disease. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Routine screening and supplementation for iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in asymptomatic, nonanemic pregnant women could improve maternal and infant health outcomes. PURPOSE Update of a 2006 systematic review by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force on screening and supplementation for IDA in pregnancy. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE and the Cochrane(More)
BACKGROUND A 2005 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) review found good evidence that HIV screening is accurate and that antiretroviral therapy (ART) for immunologically advanced disease is associated with substantial clinical benefits, but insufficient evidence to determine the effects on transmission or in less immunologically advanced disease.(More)
BACKGROUND In 2004, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force determined that evidence was insufficient to support screening women for intimate partner violence (IPV). PURPOSE To review new evidence on the effectiveness of screening and interventions for women in health care settings in reducing IPV and related health outcomes, the diagnostic accuracy of(More)
BACKGROUND Screening for type 2 diabetes mellitus could lead to earlier identification and treatment of asymptomatic diabetes, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), potentially resulting in improved outcomes. PURPOSE To update the 2008 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force review on diabetes screening in adults. DATA SOURCES(More)