Ian A. Simpson

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Glucose is the obligate energetic fuel for the mammalian brain, and most studies of cerebral energy metabolism assume that the majority of cerebral glucose utilization fuels neuronal activity via oxidative metabolism, both in the basal and activated state. Glucose transporter (GLUT) proteins deliver glucose from the circulation to the brain: GLUT1 in the(More)
Glucose is the principal energy source for the mammalian brain. The presence of glucose transport proteins is essential to supply glucose to the neurons and glia within the brain. At least three glucose transporter isoforms have now been identified, and are thought to play a significant role, in the brain. This review describes our current understanding of(More)
Glucose metabolism is vital to most mammalian cells, and the passage of glucose across cell membranes is facilitated by a family of integral membrane transporter proteins, the GLUTs. There are currently 14 members of the SLC2 family of GLUTs, several of which have been the focus of this series of reviews. The subject of the present review is GLUT3, which,(More)
Brain capillary endothelial cells form the blood-brain barrier (BBB). They are connected by extensive tight junctions, and are polarized into luminal (blood-facing) and abluminal (brain-facing) plasma membrane domains. The polar distribution of transport proteins mediates amino acid (AA) homeostasis in the brain. The existence of two facilitative(More)
Glucose is the principle energy source for the mammalian brain. Delivery of glucose from the blood to the brain requires transport across the endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier and into the neurons and glia. The facilitative glucose transporter proteins mediate these processes. The primary isoforms in brain are GLUT1, detected at high(More)
Diabetic retinopathy remains a frightening prospect to patients and frustrates physicians. Destruction of damaged retina by photocoagulation remains the primary treatment nearly 50 years after its introduction. The diabetes pandemic requires new approaches to understand the pathophysiology and improve the detection, prevention, and treatment of retinopathy.(More)
Functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (fMRS) allows the non-invasive measurement of metabolite concentrations in the human brain, including changes induced by variations in neurotransmission activity. However, the limited spatial and temporal resolution of fMRS does not allow specific measurements of metabolites in different cell types. Thus, the(More)
Normal development of both human and rat brain is associated with a switch in metabolic fuel from a combination of glucose and ketone bodies in the immature brain to a nearly total reliance on glucose in the adult. The delivery of glucose, lactate, and ketone bodies from the blood to the brain requires specific transporter proteins, glucose and(More)
Glutaric acidemia type I (GA-I) is an inherited disorder of lysine and tryptophan metabolism presenting with striatal lesions anatomically and symptomatically similar to Huntington disease. Affected children commonly suffer acute brain injury in the context of a catabolic state associated with nonspecific illness. The mechanisms underlying injury and(More)
This study examines the apparent affinity, catalytic-centre activity ("turnover number') and stereospecificity of the neuronal glucose transporter GLUT3 in primary cultured cerebellar granule neurons. Using a novel variation of the 3-O-[14C]methylglucose transport assay, by measuring zero-trans kinetics at 25 degrees C, GLUT3 was determined to be a(More)