Ian A. Oldenburg

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Motor cortex, basal ganglia (BG), and thalamus are arranged in a recurrent loop whose activity guides motor actions. In the dominant model of the function of the BG and their role in Parkinson's disease, direct (dSPNs) and indirect (iSPNs) striatal projection neurons are proposed to oppositely modulate cortical activity via BG outputs to thalamus. Here, we(More)
Optical stimulation and silencing of neural activity is a powerful technique for elucidating the structure and function of neural circuitry. In most in vivo optogenetic experiments, light is delivered into the brain through a single optical fiber. However, this approach limits illumination to a fixed volume of the brain. Here a focused ion beam is used to(More)
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