Ian A. Butler

Learn More
Hybrids between species are often sterile or inviable because the long-diverged genomes of their parents cause developmental problems when they come together in a single individual. According to the Dobzhansky-Muller (DM) model, the number of genes involved in these "intrinsic postzygotic incompatibilities" should increase faster than linearly with the(More)
We studied the clinical, biochemical, and genetic features of eight patients with the autosomal recessive mitochondrial syndrome mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE). MNGIE is clinically characterized by ophthalmoparesis, peripheral neuropathy, leukoencephalopathy, gastrointestinal symptoms (recurrent nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea)(More)
To achieve the "constancy of the wild-type," the developing organism must be buffered against stochastic fluctuations and environmental perturbations. This phenotypic buffering has been theorized to arise from a variety of genetic mechanisms and is widely thought to be adaptive and essential for viability. In the Drosophila blastoderm embryo, staining with(More)
Multicellular eukaryotic organisms are attacked by numerous parasites from diverse phyla, often simultaneously or sequentially. An outstanding question in these interactions is how hosts integrate signals induced by the attack of different parasites. We used a model system comprised of the plant host Arabidopsis thaliana, the hemibiotrophic bacterial(More)
OBJECTIVES The purposes of this study were: (1) to ascertain the incidence and nature of severe physical child abuse in Wales; (2) to ascertain the incidence of all physical abuse in babies under 1 year of age; and (3) to determine whether child protection registers (CPR) accurately reflect the numbers of children who are physically abused. METHODS This(More)
A 26-year-old woman was in spontaneous clinical remission from myasthenia gravis (MG) for six months, yet gave birth to a full-term infant with typical neonatal MG. It is believed that transplacental transfer of anti-acetylcholine (ACh) receptor antibodies is responsible for neonatal MG; therefore, neonatal MG represents an in vivo assay of the pathogenic(More)
An ion trap LC-MS/MS method is described for the analysis of C-glycosylflavone O-glycosides in crude methanolic extracts of plants. The method employs survey scans with and without the application of up-front collision induced dissociation (CID) to generate diagnostic ions for data-directed MS/MS. The spectra acquired allow assignment of the C-linked sugar(More)
Previous work on Drosophila santomea suggested that its absence of abdominal pigmentation, compared to the other darkly pigmented species, is based on mutations in the cis-regulatory region of tan, inactivating the expression of that gene in the abdomen of D. santomea males and females. Our discovery that D. santomea males can produce viable hybrids when(More)
Broadly applicable polymorphic genetic markers are essential tools for population genetics, and different types of markers have been developed for this purpose. Microsatellites have been employed as particularly polymorphic markers for over 20 years. However, PCR primers for microsatellite loci are often not useful outside the species for which they were(More)