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OBJECTIVE To assess the relative risk of major congenital malformation (MCM) from in utero exposure to antiepileptic drug (AEDs). METHODS Prospective data collected by the UK Epilepsy and Pregnancy Register were analysed. The presence of MCMs recorded within the first three months of life was the main outcome measure. RESULTS Full outcome data were(More)
OBJECTIVE In the general population, folic acid supplementation during pregnancy has been demonstrated to reduce the frequency of neural tube defects (NTDs) and other major congenital malformations (MCMs). It is recommended that women with epilepsy contemplating pregnancy take supplemental folic acid because of the known antifolate effect of some(More)
It is not known whether the antiepileptic drug (AED) levetiracetam can be used safely in human pregnancy. As part of a study to determine the risks of major congenital malformations (MCMs) for infants exposed to AEDs in utero, we identified all cases exposed to levetiracetam. Three of 117 exposed pregnancies had an MCM (2.7%; 95% CI 0.9% to 7.7%); all 3(More)
BACKGROUND Iron deficiency anaemia is the most common deficiency disorder in the world, affecting more than one billion people, with pregnant women at particular risk. OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN We conducted a single site, prospective, nonblinded randomized-controlled trial to compare the efficacy, safety, tolerability and compliance of standard oral daily(More)
To compare colonization and catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI) rates among three insertion sites (subclavian, internal jugular, femoral) used for central venous catheter (CVC) placement. Twenty-four-month prospective study, with relative effects analyzed by Cox proportional hazards regression. Eight-bed intensive care unit. Four hundred and ten(More)
BACKGROUND Animal and some human studies have indicated that the consumption of chili-containing meals increases energy expenditure and fat oxidation, which may help to reduce obesity and related disorders. Because habitual diets affect the activity and responsiveness of receptors involved in regulating and transporting nutrients, the effects of regular(More)
OBJECTIVES the study aimed to determine age and gender specific levels of lipids and lipoproteins in New Zealanders. Participants were randomly selected from 20 general electoral roles, and from a sample of 15-18 year olds. METHODS plasma cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured in 2941 men and women aged 15-99(More)
The World Health Organisation's (WHO) approach to the measurement of health system efficiency is briefly described. Four arguments are then presented. First, equity of finance should not be a criterion for the evaluation of a health system and, more generally, the same objectives and importance weights should not be imposed upon all countries. Secondly, the(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of regular chilli ingestion on some indicators of metabolic and vascular function. DESIGN A randomized cross-over dietary intervention study. SETTING Launceston, Australia. SUBJECTS Healthy free-living individuals. INTERVENTION Thirty-six participants (22 women and 14 men), aged 46+/-12 (mean+/-s.d.) years; BMI(More)
OBJECTIVES Topiramate (Topamax) is licensed to be used, either in monotherapy or as adjunctive treatment, for generalized tonic clonic seizures or partial seizures with or without secondary generalization and for prevention of migraine. The safety of topiramate in human pregnancy is largely unknown. Here we report on our experience of pregnancies exposed to(More)