Iain James Marshall

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OBJECTIVE To synthesise the findings from individual qualitative studies on patients' understanding and experiences of hypertension and drug taking; to investigate whether views differ internationally by culture or ethnic group and whether the research could inform interventions to improve adherence. DESIGN Systematic review and narrative synthesis of(More)
In medicine, the publication of clinical trials now far out-paces clinicians' ability to read them. <i>Systematic reviews</i>, which aim to summarize the entirety of the available evidence on a specific clinical question, have therefore become the linchpin of evidence-based decision making. A key task in systematic reviews is determining whether the results(More)
Systematic reviews underpin Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) by addressing precise clinical questions via comprehensive synthesis of all relevant published evidence. Authors of systematic reviews typically define a Population/Problem, Intervention, Comparator, and Outcome (a PICO criteria) of interest, and then retrieve, appraise and synthesize results from(More)
Cloud network models have limitations in handling networking between distributed cloud resources and in providing customers the ability to control and configure networks. This paper presents a Cloud Networking Gateway (CNG) Manager for dynamic establishment of intra and inter cloud connectivity. The CNG Manager interconnects virtual machines acquired from(More)
O1 User testing of Test-Treatment Pathway derivation to help formulating focused diagnostic questions Gowri Gopalakrishna, Miranda Langendam, Rob Scholten, Patrick Bossuyt, Mariska Leeflang Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Biostatistics & Bioinformatics, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Cochrane Netherlands,(More)
The latest evidence on socioeconomic status and stroke shows that stroke not only disproportionately affects low-income and middle-income countries, but also socioeconomically deprived populations within high-income countries. These disparities are reflected not only in risk of stroke but also in short-term and long-term outcomes after stroke. Increased(More)
The adoption of Cloud computing as a new business model has induced the proliferation of several Cloud service providers. Cloud end users are then faced with choosing the appropriate provider offers in terms of supported technologies, geographic locations, security, access rules, billing, etc. In this paper, we propose a new Cloud broker called(More)
OBJECTIVE To develop and evaluate RobotReviewer, a machine learning (ML) system that automatically assesses bias in clinical trials. From a (PDF-formatted) trial report, the system should determine risks of bias for the domains defined by the Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool, and extract supporting text for these judgments. METHODS We algorithmically(More)
Summarizing the evidence about medical interventions is an immense undertaking, in part because unstructured Portable Document Format (PDF) documents remain the main vehicle for disseminating scientific findings. Clinicians and researchers must therefore manually extract and synthesise information from these PDFs. We introduce Spá, a web-based viewer that(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Vascular risk factors are suboptimally managed internationally. This study investigated time trends in risk factors diagnosed before stroke and their treatment, and factors associated with appropriate medication use. METHODS A total of 4416 patients with a first stroke were registered in the population-based South London Stroke(More)