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CONTEXT Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays an important role in host defense and tumor growth control. Therefore, anti-TNF antibody therapies may increase the risk of serious infections and malignancies. OBJECTIVE To assess the extent to which anti-TNF antibody therapies may increase the risk of serious infections and malignancies in patients with(More)
CONTEXT Adherence to antiretroviral therapy is a powerful predictor of survival for individuals living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS. Concerns about incomplete adherence among patients living in poverty have been an important consideration in expanding the access to antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVE To evaluate(More)
The epidemiological question of concern here is " can young children at risk of obesity be identified from their early growth records? " Pilot work using logistic regression to predict overweight and obese children demonstrated relatively limited success. Hence we investigate the incorporation of non-linear interactions to help improve accuracy of(More)
BACKGROUND Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) medication is the greatest patient-enabled predictor of treatment success and mortality for those who have access to drugs. We systematically reviewed the literature to determine patient-reported barriers and facilitators to adhering to antiretroviral therapy. METHODS AND FINDINGS We(More)
Excess adiposity is associated with increased risks of developing adult malignancies. To inform public health policy and guide further research, the incident cancer burden attributable to excess body mass index (BMI >or= 25 kg/m(2)) across 30 European countries were estimated. Population attributable risks (PARs) were calculated using European- and(More)
Scientific data represents a significant portion of the linked open data cloud and scientists stand to benefit from the data fusion capability this will afford. Publishing linked data into the cloud, however, doesn't ensure the required reusability. Publishing has requirements of provenance, quality, credit, attri-bution and methods to provide the(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS The evidence on the association between pioglitazone use and bladder cancer is contradictory, with many studies subject to allocation bias. The aim of our study was to examine the effect of exposure to pioglitazone on bladder cancer risk internationally across several cohorts. The potential for allocation bias was minimised by focusing on(More)
BACKGROUND Semi-structured interview scales for psychosis are the gold standard approach to assessing psychotic and other symptoms. However, such assessments have limitations such as recall bias, averaging, insensitivity to change and variable interrater reliability. Ambulant, real-time self-report assessment devices may hold advantages over interview(More)
Developed countries have enjoyed substantial falls in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. However, low and middle income countries are drowning in a rising tide of CVD and other non-communicable diseases. Current and future trends in CVD mortality will therefore require increasing attention in the 21st century. The success of clinical cardiology in(More)
BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with breast cancer are at high risk of contralateral disease. Such women often elect to have contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy (CRRM) to reduce the likelihood of recurrence. This study considers whether CRRM improves overall survival. 105 female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with unilateral breast cancer who underwent CRRM were(More)