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BACKGROUND The effectiveness of intermittent montelukast for wheeze in young children is unclear. We aimed to assess whether intermittent montelukast is better than placebo for treatment of wheeze in this age group. Because copy numbers of the Sp1-binding motif in the arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) gene promoter (either 5/5, 5/x, or x/x, where x does(More)
Modelling studies suggest that urban cycling is associated with an increased inhaled dose of fossil fuel-derived black carbon (BC). Using the amount of black material in airway macrophages as a marker of long-term inhaled BC, we sought to compare inhaled BC dose in London (UK) cyclists and non-cyclists. Airway macrophage carbon was assessed in 28 (58%) out(More)
BACKGROUND Epidemiologic studies report an association between pneumonia and urban particulate matter (PM) less than 10 microns (μm) in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10)). Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of bacterial pneumonia worldwide. To date, the mechanism whereby urban PM enhances vulnerability to S pneumoniae infection is unclear. Adhesion of S(More)
We attempted to optimize some of the variables involved in the in vitro culturing of Plasmodium falciparum. Irrespective of the isolates used, suspension cultures in glucose-enriched RPMI-1640 medium buffered with TES yielded about twice the amount of parasites than could be obtained from static, thin-layer cultures with HEPES-buffered RPMI-1640 without(More)
Purified osteocalcin from cow and calf bone was analyzed for nonenzymatic glycosylation (glycation) by sodium [3H]borohydride reduction. Calf bone was found to be approximately 5% glycated, while bone from mature cows was 10% glycated. These results were confirmed by a second method which utilizes periodate oxidation followed by formaldehyde fluorescence.(More)
The European Water Framework Directive requires the integrated management of point and diffuse pollution to achieve 'good' water quality in 'protected areas'. These include bathing waters, which are regulated using faecal indicator organisms as compliance parameters. Thus, for the first time, European regulators are faced with the control of faecal(More)