Iain Cranston

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Hypoglycaemia without warning is a dangerous complication of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and it limits the use of intensified insulin therapy to reduce chronic diabetic complications. To investigate the possibility of restoring awareness; symptomatic, cognitive, and hormonal responses to controlled hypoglycaemia were studied in insulin-dependent(More)
Severe hypoglycaemia with brain dysfunction limits intensified therapy in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, despite evidence that such therapy reduces the risk of chronic complications of the disease. We have investigated the effect of infusing lactate (a potential non-glucose fuel for brain metabolism) on protective, symptomatic(More)
We examined the effects of acute moderate hypoglycemia and the condition of hypoglycemia unawareness on regional brain uptake of the labeled glucose analog [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) using positron emission tomography (PET). FDG-PET was performed in diabetic patients with (n = 6) and without (n = 7) hypoglycemia awareness. Each patient was studied at(More)
To determine the effect of insulin on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and glucose metabolism (CMRglu), we performed quantitative dynamic PET scanning of labeled water (H215O) and deoxyglucose (18FDG) using two protocols in 10 diabetic men. In protocol A, to test reproducibility of the technique, insulin was infused at 1.5 mU.kg-1.min-1 twice (n = 5). In(More)
OBJECTIVE Loss of ability to recognize hypoglycemia (hypoglycemia unawareness) increases risk of severe hypoglycemia threefold in insulin-treated diabetes. We set out to investigate the cerebral correlates of unawareness in type 1 patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Regional changes in brain glucose kinetics were measured using(More)
OBJECTIVE Use of automated bolus advisors is associated with improved glycemic control in patients treated with insulin pump therapy. We conducted a study to assess the impact of using an insulin bolus advisor embedded in a blood glucose (BG) meter on glycemic control and treatment satisfaction in patients treated with multiple daily insulin injection (MDI)(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of normal aging on the protective responses against hypoglycemia, in view of the fact that type II diabetes is primarily a disease of aging, and its treatment is associated with risk of hypoglycemia with cognitive impairment. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Plasma glucose was lowered stepwise from 5 to 2.4 mmol/l and(More)
We have investigated the potential for the human brain to use lipid fuels during acute hypoglycemia. Nine healthy male subjects underwent hyperinsulinemic (1.5 mU/kg x min) stepped hypoglycemic clamps on two occasions, infusing Intralipid (20%) and heparin (0.1 U/kg x min) on one occasion only (ILH), with an identical study without infusion of ILH acting as(More)
BACKGROUND Hyponatraemia is a very common medical condition that is associated with multiple poor clinical outcomes and is often managed suboptimally because of inadequate assessment and investigation. Previously published guidelines for its management are often complex and impractical to follow in a hospital environment, where patients may present to(More)
BACKGROUND People with T1DM and insulin-treated T2DM often do not follow and/or adjust their insulin regimens as needed. Key contributors to treatment non-adherence are fear of hypoglycaemia, difficulty and lack of self-efficacy associated with insulin dose determination. Because manual calculation of insulin boluses is both complex and time consuming,(More)