Iain C. Macdougall

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BACKGROUND Whether correction of anemia in patients with stage 3 or 4 chronic kidney disease improves cardiovascular outcomes is not established. METHODS We randomly assigned 603 patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 15.0 to 35.0 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area and mild-to-moderate anemia (hemoglobin level, 11.0 to(More)
BACKGROUND Management of anemia is an important factor in the care of patients with chronic kidney disease as the anemic state can confer significant morbidity and mortality. Posttransplantation anemia (PTA) has received comparatively less attention in the literature, and the prevalence and predictors of PTA vary between different studies. The purpose of(More)
Clinical development of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) revolutionized the management of anemia. The major clinical benefits of ESAs are effective treatment of anemia and avoidance of blood transfusion risks. Erythropoietin (EPO) interacts directly with the EPO receptor on the red blood cell (RBC) surface, triggering activation of several signal(More)
Functional iron deficiency (FID) is a state in which there is insufficient iron incorporation into erythroid precursors in the face of apparently adequate body iron stores, as defined by the presence of stainable iron in the bone marrow together with a serum ferritin value within normal limits (Macdougall et al, 1989). In its broadest sense this definition(More)
Continuous Erythropoietin Receptor Activator (C.E.R.A.) is a new agent that is in development for the treatment of anemia with extended administration intervals in patients who have chronic kidney disease (CKD), both those on and those not on dialysis. This was an open-label, randomized, multicenter, two-period, crossover study in erythropoiesis-stimulating(More)
In view of current uncertainty regarding the optimum route for iron supplementation in patients receiving recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO), a prospective randomized controlled study was designed to investigate this issue. All iron-replete renal failure patients commencing EPO who had a hemoglobin concentration < 8.5 g/dl and an initial serum ferritin(More)
Novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein (NESP) is a hyperglycosylated analogue of recombinant human erythropoietin (Epoetin) which has an increased terminal half-life in animal models. The aim of this study was to extend these observations to humans. Using a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design, the single-dose pharmacokinetics of Epoetin alfa (100(More)
Iron is a micronutrient essential for cellular energy and metabolism, necessary for maintaining body homoeostasis. Iron deficiency is an important co-morbidity in patients with heart failure (HF). A major factor in the pathogenesis of anaemia, it is also a separate condition with serious clinical consequences (e.g. impaired exercise capacity) and poor(More)
Anaemia affects roughly a third of the world's population; half the cases are due to iron deficiency. It is a major and global public health problem that affects maternal and child mortality, physical performance, and referral to health-care professionals. Children aged 0-5 years, women of childbearing age, and pregnant women are particularly at risk.(More)
BACKGROUND Peginesatide, a synthetic peptide-based erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA), is a potential therapy for anemia in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. METHODS We conducted two randomized, controlled, open-label studies (EMERALD 1 and EMERALD 2) involving patients undergoing hemodialysis. Cardiovascular safety was evaluated by(More)