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Power distribution networks (PDN) use various kinds of capacitors to create the required impedance profile and to suppress noise. The simple model of bypass capacitors is a series R-L-C network with frequency independent parameters. The paper gives measured data for various bulk and ceramic capacitors, showing the extraction procedure and frequency(More)
The impact of via arrays on power and ground planes is examined in This work. Measurements of the plane impedance were made on a 8/spl times/8 via array as a function of via pair location. The results from full-wave field solution are compared to measurement data and excellent correlation is obtained. The results show that the impedance and effective(More)
Power and ground planes can be simulated with rectangular uniform SPICE grids, or by analytically evaluating the double series of modal resonances. For nonrectangular shapes, the Transmission Matrix Method (TLM) can be used. For odd shapes, irregular outlines, cutouts and perforations, a variable-size cell grid is shown to be effective and sufficiently(More)
Low-Q bypass capacitors with controlled ESR offer the advantage of creating resonance-free power distribution networks (PDN) with low sensitivity to component tolerances, and achieving a predictable impedance profile with the minimum number of components. Low Q bypass capacitors, termed bypass resistors, can be created either by reducing the inductance of(More)
A complete derivation of inductance from energy relations is presented, outlining all the key steps and assumptions. Based on this derivation, the concept of partial inductance is reviewed and several useful expressions for partial inductance are presented. The accuracy of these expressions is then evaluated by comparing these formula to 3D field solutions(More)
Experiments on rats showed that thermal irradiation caused a more marked elevation of subcutaneous temperature at the area of the skin separated from the underlying tissues by a felt plate than at the skin area separated from the surrounding and underlying tissues and immediately sutured to its place or the area of the uninjured skin. The authors believe(More)
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