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This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to prepare specifications for the identity and purity of food additives. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing(More)
Studies were conducted to characterize the effect of dose and route of administration on the disposition of N-butylpyridinium chloride (NBuPy-Cl), an ionic liquid with solvent properties. Urine was the major route of NBuPy-Cl excretion after intravenous (5 mg/kg), single oral (0.5, 5, or 50 mg/kg), or repeated oral (50 mg/kg/day, 5 days) administration to(More)
Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) is involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics that are or can form epoxide metabolites, including the ovotoxicant, 4-vinylcyclohexene (VCH). This industrial chemical is bioactivated by hepatic CYP450 to the diepoxide metabolite, VCD, which destroys mouse small preantral follicles (F1). Since ovarian mEH may play a role(More)
Ovarian follicle disruption in mice caused by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) is attributed to its bioactivation by CYP1B1 to a 3,4-epoxide which is then hydrolyzed to form a 3,4-diol by microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH). Further epoxidation by CYP1A1 or 1B1 forms the ultimate ovotoxicant, DMBA-3,4-diol-1,2-epoxide. Studies suggest that the mouse(More)
Vitamin A (VA, retinol) has been shown to modulate cells of the immune system. When rats are pretreated with VA (75 mg/kg/day) for 7 days, there is greatly potentiated liver damage upon subsequent exposure to hepatotoxicants such as CCl4. This potentiated damage can be blocked by superoxide dismutase or catalase, suggesting that reactive oxygen species are(More)
Capsaicin depleted substance P from guinea pig dorsal root ganglia and inhibited the retrograde axoplasmic transport of nerve growth factor (NGF). Doses of capsaicin which depleted substance P also inhibited the retrograde axoplasmic transport of NGF. Inhibition of the retrograde transport of NGF by capsaicin preceded substance P depletion. Supplementation(More)
Hepatic DNA damage induced by the pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline was evaluated following i.p. administration to adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were treated with various doses ranging upward from 5 mg/kg, and hepatic nuclei were isolated 4 hr later. Hepatic nuclei were used as the DNA source in all experiments. DNA damage was characterized by(More)
Repeated daily dosing of rats with the occupational chemical 4- vinylcyclohexene or its diepoxide metabolite (VCD) for 15 days destroys the smallest ovarian follicles. VCD acutely reduced hepatic levels of the antioxidant, glutathione (GSH); therefore, these studies were designed to evaluate whether GSH concentrations mediate VCD-induced ovotoxicity.(More)
Abbreviation/Definition list: 2-Box Model – a RIFM, Inc. proprietary in silico tool used to calculate fragrance air exposure concentration 97.5 th percentile – The concentration of the fragrance ingredient is obtained from examination of several thousand commercial fine fragrance formulations. The upper 97.5th percentile concentration is calculated from(More)
The toxicokinetics of salicylazosulfapyridine (SASP) and its metabolites were investigated in male and female B6C3F1 mice either following single intravenous (5 mg/kg) or oral (67.5, 675, 1350, and 2700 mg/kg) doses, or following three consecutive daily oral doses (675, 1350, and 2700 mg/kg). Plasma concentrations of SASP and its metabolites were quantified(More)