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This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to prepare specifications for the identity and purity of food additives. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing(More)
This publication is the seventh in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers' Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavouring substances under conditions of intended use. In this review, scientific data relevant to(More)
This study examined the extent of dermal absorption of a series of phthalate diesters in the rat. Those tested were dimethyl, diethyl, dibutyl, diisobutyl, dihexyl, di(2-ethylhexyl), diisodecyl, and benzyl butyl phthalate. Hair from a skin area (1.3 cm in diameter) on the back of male F344 rats was clipped, the [14C]phthalate diester was applied in a dose(More)
Studies have shown that in the rat, bisphenol A (BPA) is metabolized and eliminated primarily as a monoglucuronide, a metabolite without estrogenic activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of monoglucuronide formation in monolayers of hepatocytes from rats, mice, and humans. Noncytotoxic concentrations of BPA (10, 20, and 35 microM;(More)
This study investigated the kinetics of glucuronidation of bisphenol A (BPA; 4,4'-dihydroxy-2,2-diphenylpropane) in cryopreserved human hepatocytes (HCs). Incubation conditions were developed using Sprague-Dawley rat HCs. For determination of the kinetic constants of BPA glucuronidation rates with human HCs, viable HCs (0.125 x 10(6)) were incubated with(More)
Extensive destruction of primordial follicles by exposure to ovarian toxicants can cause early menopause in women. Primordial follicle destruction is known to result from dosing of mice and rats with three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), contaminants commonly found in cigarette smoke. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare relative(More)
a Department of Dermatology, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, 161 Fort Washington Avenue, New York, NY 10032, USA b Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, The University of Sheffield, Alfred Denny Building, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK c Institute of Toxicology and Environmental Hygiene, Technical University of Munich,(More)
The aryl alkyl alcohol (AAA) fragrance ingredients are a diverse group of chemical structures with similar metabolic and toxicity profiles. The AAA fragrances demonstrate low acute and subchronic dermal and oral toxicity. No carcinogenicity in rats or mice was observed in 2-year chronic testing of benzyl alcohol or α-methylbenzyl alcohol; the latter did(More)
There is controversy over whether low doses of bisphenol A (BPA, CAS no. 80-05-7) cause reproductive and developmental effects in humans. We update the 2004 weight-of-evidence assessment of an expert panel convened by Harvard's Center for Risk Analysis by critically evaluating over 50 additional studies published between April 2002 and February 2006 that(More)