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Actual problems of the cerebrospinal fluid‐contacting neurons
It is hypothesized that the central nervous system of deuterostomian echinoderm starfishes and the prochordate lancelet is composed mainly of CSF‐contacting‐like neurons, and this cell type represents ancient cells, or protoneurons, in the vertebrate brain.
Special dendritic and axonal endings formed by the cerebrospinal fluid contacting neurons of the spinal cord
Morphological evidence suggests that these nerve terminals and the corresponding CSF contacting perikarya represent a spinal neurosecretory system possibly influenced by information taken up by its special dendrites protruding into the inner CSF space.
Comparative ultrastructure of the cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons.
Publisher Summary The structure of the cerebrospinal spinal fluid (CSF)-contacting endings differs in the two parts of the nervous system. In the hypothalamus, the CSF contacting dendritic terminals
The system of cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons.
The CSF-contacting neurons represent a specialized, but phylogenetically old cell type, a "protoneuron" in the vertebrate brain, which may be derived phylogenetically by inversion of the ciliated neurons found in the plate-like nervous system of more primitive deuterostomians.
Cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons of the central canal and terminal ventricle in various vertebrates
Since the dendritic terminals of the spinal CSF-contacting neurons resemble those of known sensory cells and the axon terminals on the basal lamina resemble ultrastructurally neurosecretory endings, it is suppose that the former are receptive to stimuli exerted by the internal CSF and capable of translating them into a neuro secretory output directed toward the external (subarachnoid) CSF.
Comparison of the pineal complex, retina and cerebrospinal fluid contacting neurons by immunocytochemical antirhodopsin reaction.
The light microscopic immunocytochemical results seem to contradict a photoreceptive role of the CSF contacting neurons and strengthen the view that the receptory cells of the pineal complex of lower vertebrates are involved in light perception by means of the visual pigment rhodopsin.
Comparative histology of pineal calcification.
It is concluded that a multifactorial mechanism may be responsible for the calcification of the pineal organ and the formation of these layers is connected to circannual changes in the calcium level of the organ.
Structure of the medullo-spinal liquor-contacting neuronal system.
Opsin-immunoreactive outer segments in the pineal and parapineal organs of the lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis), the eel (Anguilla anguilla), and the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)
Results provide direct evidence that the photosensitivity of the pineal demonstrated electrophysiologically in lampreys and teleosts (cf. Dodt 1973) is based on an opsin-containing photopigment.
Opsin-immunoreactive outer segments and acetylcholinesterase-positive neurons in the pineal complex of Phoxinus phoxinus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae)
These immunocytochemical observations provide direct evidence of the presence of an opsin associated with a photopigment in the photosensory cells of the pineal and parapineal organs of Phoxinus.