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Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms
13 models of the ocean–carbon cycle are used to assess calcium carbonate saturation under the IS92a ‘business-as-usual’ scenario for future emissions of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and indicate that conditions detrimental to high-latitude ecosystems could develop within decades, not centuries as suggested previously. Expand
Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model
Results from a fully coupled, three-dimensional carbon–climate model are presented, indicating that carbon-cycle feedbacks could significantly accelerate climate change over the twenty-first century. Expand
Development and evaluation of an Earth-System model - HadGEM2
Abstract. We describe here the development and evaluation of an Earth system model suitable for centennial-scale climate prediction. The principal new components added to the physical climate modelExpand
The HadGEM2 family of Met Office Unified Model climate configurations
Abstract. We describe the HadGEM2 family of climate configurations of the Met Office Unified Model, MetUM. The concept of a model "family" comprises a range of specific model configurationsExpand
Production and export in a global ocean ecosystem model
The Hadley Centre Ocean Carbon Cycle (HadOCC) model is a coupled physical–biogeochemical model of the ocean carbon cycle. It features an explicit representation of the marine ecosystem, which isExpand
Drivers and uncertainties of future global marine primary production in marine ecosystem models
Abstract. Past model studies have projected a global decrease in marine net primary production (NPP) over the 21st century, but these studies focused on the multi-model mean rather than on the largeExpand
Interactive comment on “ Development and evaluation of an Earth-system model – HadGEM 2 ”
We thank this reviewer for their valuable comments. We have tried to improve the coherence of the manuscript throughout. The level of technical language was chosen to make the paper understandable toExpand
High sensitivity of future global warming to land carbon cycle processes
Unknowns in future global warming are usually assumed to arise from uncertainties either in the amount of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or in the sensitivity of the climate to changes inExpand
Climate sensitivity to ocean dimethylsulphide emissions
The production of dimethylsulphide (DMS) by ocean phytoplankton is hypothesized to form part of a feedback process on global climate. Changes in the DMS flux to the atmosphere cause changes toExpand
Evaluation of ocean model ventilation with CFC-11: comparison of 13 global ocean models
We compared the 13 models participating in the Ocean Carbon Model Intercomparison Project (OCMIP) with regards to their skill in matching observed distributions of CFC-11. This analysis characterizesExpand