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Cyclooxygenase‐independent actions of cyclooxygenase inhibitors
TLDR
Differences in cyclooxygenase‐independent mechanisms may have consequences for the specific use of these drugs in individual patients because additional effects may either enhance the efficacy or reduce the toxicity of the respective compounds.
Cannabinoids mediate analgesia largely via peripheral type 1 cannabinoid receptors in nociceptors
TLDR
It is concluded that the contribution of CB1-type receptors expressed on the peripheral terminals of nociceptors to cannabinoid-induced analgesia is paramount, which should enable the development of peripherally acting CB1 analgesic agonists without any central side effects.
GTP cyclohydrolase and tetrahydrobiopterin regulate pain sensitivity and persistence
We report that GTP cyclohydrolase (GCH1), the rate-limiting enzyme for tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) synthesis, is a key modulator of peripheral neuropathic and inflammatory pain. BH4 is an essential
COX‐2 independent induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in colon cancer cells by the selective COX‐2 inhibitor celecoxib
TLDR
In vitro and in vivo data indicate that the antitumor effects of celecoxib probably are mediated through COX‐2 independent mechanisms and are not restricted to COX•2 over‐expressing tumors.
Opioids As Modulators of Cell Death and Survival—Unraveling Mechanisms and Revealing New Indications
TLDR
The present review tries to unravel controversial findings and provides a hypothesis that may help to integrate diverse results that are still unclear whether these properties are mediated through typical opioid receptor activation and inhibitory G-protein-signaling.
Release of algesic substances in human experimental muscle pain
TLDR
The data support the notion that an inflammatory reaction may be involved in muscle soreness following eccentric exercise, whereas the injection of hypertonic saline into the muscle probably directly stimulates muscle nociceptors and causes glutamate release.
G protein-independent G1 cell cycle block and apoptosis with morphine in adenocarcinoma cells: involvement of p53 phosphorylation.
TLDR
The results suggest that morphine, alone or in combination with Nx, may reduce the growth of certain tumors, apparently in part through activation of p53.
Pharmacokinetics of Opioids in Liver Disease
TLDR
Although glucuronidation is thought to be less affected in liver cirrhosis, the clearance of morphine was found to be decreased and oral bioavailability increased, and the disposition of a few opioids, such as fentanyl, sufent anil and remifentanil, appears to be unaffected in liver disease.
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