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Cannabinoids mediate analgesia largely via peripheral type 1 cannabinoid receptors in nociceptors
Although endocannabinoids constitute one of the first lines of defense against pain, the anatomical locus and the precise receptor mechanisms underlying cannabinergic modulation of pain areExpand
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GTP cyclohydrolase and tetrahydrobiopterin regulate pain sensitivity and persistence
We report that GTP cyclohydrolase (GCH1), the rate-limiting enzyme for tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) synthesis, is a key modulator of peripheral neuropathic and inflammatory pain. BH4 is an essentialExpand
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Opioids As Modulators of Cell Death and Survival—Unraveling Mechanisms and Revealing New Indications
Opioids are powerful analgesics but also drugs of abuse. Because opioid addicts are susceptible to certain infections, opioids have been suspected to suppress the immune response. This was supportedExpand
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Specific Inhibition of IκB Kinase Reduces Hyperalgesia in Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain Models in Rats
Phosphorylation of IκB through IκB kinase (IKK) is the first step in nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation and upregulation of NF-κB-responsive genes. Hence, inhibition of IKK activity may be expectedExpand
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No NO, no pain? The role of nitric oxide and cGMP in spinal pain processing
A large body of evidence indicates that nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) essentially contribute to the processing of nociceptive signals in the spinal cord. Many animalExpand
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G protein-independent G1 cell cycle block and apoptosis with morphine in adenocarcinoma cells: involvement of p53 phosphorylation.
Opioid effects on tumor growth have been a controversial topic of discussion. In the present study, morphine inhibited tumor cell proliferation at concentrations of >or=10 micro M. This was primarilyExpand
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Cyclooxygenase 2 expression in the spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) after induction peripherally, and within the CNS, plays an important role in producing inflammatory pain. However, its role in neuropathic pain models is controversial.Expand
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Low-dose methotrexate reduces peripheral nerve injury-evoked spinal microglial activation and neuropathic pain behavior in rats
&NA; Peripheral nerve injuries that provoke neuropathic pain are associated with microglial activation in the spinal cord. We have investigated the characteristics of spinal microglial activation inExpand
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Genetically Polymorphic OCT1: Another Piece in the Puzzle of the Variable Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of the Opioidergic Drug Tramadol
We investigated whether tramadol or its active metabolite, O‐desmethyltramadol, are substrates of the organic cation transporter OCT1 and whether polymorphisms in OCT1 affect tramadol andExpand
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COX-2-Derived Prostaglandin E2 Produced by Pyramidal Neurons Contributes to Neurovascular Coupling in the Rodent Cerebral Cortex
Vasodilatory prostaglandins play a key role in neurovascular coupling (NVC), the tight link between neuronal activity and local cerebral blood flow, but their precise identity, cellular origin andExpand
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