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A Multifunctional Role for Octopamine in Locust Flight
A complex cascade of neuronal, hormonal, muscular, and metabolic events leads to the initiation and maintenance of a behavioral act and the need to alter these events at the appropriate time is critical.
Octopamine in insects: neurotransmitter, neurohormone, and neuromodulator
It is shown that octopamine can act as a neurotransmitter, a neurohormone, and a neuromodulator within the nervous system of invertebrates and in locusts, an identified octopaminergic neuron innervates the extensor-tibiae muscle of the hind legs.
Distribution of FMRFamide‐related peptides in the blood‐feeding bug Rhodnius prolixus
The results suggest the existence of a number of FMRFamide‐related peptides in Rhodnius which may have roles in both central and peripheral transmission, may be released as neurohormones and may have endocrine functions in the gut.
Proctolin: a review with emphasis on insects.
The prospects are good for advances in the understanding of modulatory mechanisms, since proctolin appears to be emerging as the model for studies of this type, and the effects of a variety of amino acid substitutions and deletions of the pentapeptide are described.