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Critical Scientific Realism
1. The Varieties of Realism 2. Realism in Ontology 3. Realism in Semantics 4. Realism in Epistemology 5. Realism in Theory Construction 6. Realism in Methodology 7. Internal Realism 8. 8. RelativismExpand
The aim and structure of applied research
The distinction between basic and applied research is notoriously vague, despite its frequent use in science studies and in science policy. In most cases it is based on such pragmatic factors as theExpand
Scientific progress
Science is often distinguished from other human enterprises by its progressive nature. Science, it is said, has "a progressive and public character ''~, and an essential feature of scientificExpand
Futures studies: science or art?
Abstract In this paper, I make an attempt to clarify the nature of futures studies with the distinction between descriptive science and design science. Instead of the dichotomy between basic andExpand
Verisimilitude: The Third Period
  • I. Niiniluoto
  • Philosophy
  • The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science
  • 1 March 1998
The modern history of verisimilitude can be divided into three periods. The first began in 1960, when Karl Popper proposed his qualitative definition of what it is for one theory to be more truthlikeExpand
Analogy and inductive logic
Is Science Progressive
1. The Nature of Science.- 2. How is Philosophy Possible as a Science?.- 3. Notes on Popper as Follower of Whewell and Peirce.- 4. The Evolution of Knowledge.- 5. Scientific Progress.- 6. The GrowthExpand
Scientific progress as increasing verisimilitude.
  • I. Niiniluoto
  • Philosophy, Medicine
  • Studies in history and philosophy of science
  • 1 June 2014
This paper defends the verisimilitude approach against Alexander Bird who argues that the "semantic" definition (in terms of truth or truthlikeness alone) is not sufficient to define progress, but the "epistemic" definition referring to justification and knowledge is more adequate. Expand
Optimistic realism about scientific progress
  • I. Niiniluoto
  • Philosophy, Computer Science
  • Synthese
  • 1 September 2017
This paper defends the definition of scientific progress as increasing truthlikeness or verisimilitude, but critical realists turn this argument into an optimistic view about progressive science. Expand
Theoretical concepts and hypothetico-inductive inference
1. Theoretical concepts and inductive Inference.- 1. Problems of Inductive Systematization: the Transitivity Dilemma.- 2. Inductive Systematization Established by Theories.- 3. A Logical FrameworkExpand