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A New Member of the Rho Family, Rnd1, Promotes Disassembly of Actin Filament Structures and Loss of Cell Adhesion
It is suggested that three proteins that form a distinct branch of the Rho family control rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton and changes in cell adhesion, including Rnd1, which has a low affinity for GDP and spontaneously exchanges nucleotide rapidly in a physiological buffer.
The Mammalian Degenerin MDEG, an Amiloride-sensitive Cation Channel Activated by Mutations Causing Neurodegeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans(*)
Cloned a neuronal degenerin (MDEG) from human and rat brain, an amiloride-sensitive cation channel permeable for Na, K, and Li, which is activated by the same mutations which cause neurodegeneration in C. elegans.
TREK‐1 is a heat‐activated background K+ channel
Peripheral and central thermoreceptors are involved in sensing ambient and body temperature, respectively. Specialized cold and warm receptors are present in dorsal root ganglion sensory fibres as
Essential role of adenosine, adenosine A1 receptors, and ATP-sensitive K+ channels in cerebral ischemic preconditioning.
A pharmacological approach using agonists and antagonists at the adenosine A1 receptor as well as openers and blockers of ATP-sensitive K+ channels combined with an analysis of neuronal death and gene expression of subunits of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors indicates that the mechanism of ischemic tolerance involves a cascade of events.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids are potent neuroprotectors
The data suggest that the opening of background K+ channels, like TREK‐1 and TRAAK, which are activated by arachidonic acid and other polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid and linolenic acid, is a significant factor in this neuroprotective effect.
A phospholipid sensor controls mechanogating of the K+ channel TREK‐1
It is demonstrated that membrane phospholipids, including PIP2, control channel gating and transform TREK‐1 into a leak K+ conductance.
A TREK-1-Like Potassium Channel in Atrial Cells Inhibited by &bgr;-Adrenergic Stimulation and Activated by Volatile Anesthetics
It is found that IKAA, a background K+ current activated by negative pressure (stretch) and by arachidonic acid (AA) and sensitive to intracellular acidification, could be the native correlate of TREK-1 in adult rat atrial cells.
The TASK background K2P channels: chemo- and nutrient sensors
Differential modulation of TASK channels by acidosis and high glucose alters excitability of the hypothalamic orexin neurons, which influence arousal, food seeking and breathing, and shed light on the role of TasK channels in sensing physiological stimuli.
Ryanodine Receptor Blockade Reduces Amyloid-β Load and Memory Impairments in Tg2576 Mouse Model of Alzheimer Disease
It is shown that overexpression of wild-type human APP (APP695), or APP harboring the Swedish double mutation (APPswe) triggers increased ryanodine receptor (RyR) expression and enhances RyR-mediated ER Ca2+ release in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and in APPswe-expressing (Tg2576) mice.
The KCNQ2 potassium channel: splice variants, functional and developmental expression. Brain localization and comparison with KCNQ3
In situ hybridization has identified four splice variants of KCNQ2 in human brain which are localized within the central nervous system, in which they are expressed in the same areas, mainly in the hippocampus, the neocortex and the cerebellar cortex.